Theresa Gray, like many married women, spends much of her time on the phone. Above: Tevis takes time Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound his studies to play with his daughter, Gina. Below: Sales parties are one of the recurring social events for the women at Brockton. Student teacher Katie Short patiently answers questions asked by her students.
A ceramics student works diligently over his pottery to form the proper Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound. Eastern students went to classes daily, each pursuing his own schedule of morning or afternoon classes, on a Monday-Wednesday, or Tuesday- Thursday class pattern which he at- tempted to manipulate for the maxi- mum of free time. Much time is spent practicing figure drawing techniques.
Students actively participate in customary folk dances in a co-educational physical education class. Library Provides Student Necessities The library provided almost un- limited facilities and resources which aided students in acquiring their edu- cation.
Students could obtain the assistance they needed by using the learning resource center, dial acess, instructional media, and the law library. Those interested in looking at artifacts from the history of the coun- try found pleasure by browsing through the museum. Students use the learning resource center for aid in stu- dent teaching. Left: Freshmen soon learn that the library offers the best place for study. Below: Students complete book Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound before going to the checkout desk. From the start of the year bikes were a familiar sight on the EKU campus. Students living on- and off-campus found them to be a cheap and quick means of transpor- tation, regardless of the weather. Game Room Holds Suitcasing Students For years, Eastern had been labeled a suitcase college because of the number of students going home on weekends.
Their traditional excuse had been that there was nothing to do on campus. The opening of the game room in Powell University Center killed this excuse. The game room had 12 bowling lanes, and in an alcove were tables for billiards, bumper pool, and foosball.
In a quiet room there are tables where stu- dents can play cards. Because of the crowded conditions, Christy Vanderpool and Jerry Phillips wait for a pool table. Lines of students crowd the cafeteria and grill of the University Center shortly after the new food service facilities opened. Line standing was a major part of Uni- versity life, as students gathered to wait their turns for many necessities, including food.
The new Powell Building featured more serving lines than the old Student Union, but the larger crowds attracted by the new- ness, and more attractive surroundings, of the University Center offset the ability to serve more students faster. Students who rushed the season during some unseasonable warm spells, or who experienced illnesses ranging from colds to homesickness sought the services of the medical staff which kept a hour vigil. Top: During the flu season, a student sits waiting the verdict of the thermometer.
Above: A Student Health Service nurse helps a student register for treatment. Right: A recuperating patient rests in one of the infirmary beds available to persons with short-term illness. Project HEAD, dormitory interest and discussion groups and informational skits were all part of a self-education pro- gram operated by students.
Drug use was not a wide-spread campus problem, but Eastern did have an apparent small percentage of users, some of whom were arrested during the year. The largest drug find of the Spring - D.B.S. - Catch 22 was a cache of drugs confiscated by local authorities in a farm- house occupied by students. Above: An overflow crowd watches one of the student-produced drug education skits.
Top: Students perform one of a series of drug education skits presented during the year. Wild World - Cat Stevens - Remember - The Ultimate Collection some, art was un- usual, yet beautiful sculptures. To others, it was the results of a skillful brush stroke on canvas.
And to still others, it was a masterful etching. Culture was made evident on cam- pus by the visitation of several artists. These artists included painters, sculp- tors, and photographers.
Left: Robert Lockhart. Below: This piece of art calls for inspection from all angles. Tof- fler was followed in November by Julian Bond. Bond spoke forcefully concerning racial relations and also stressed the college student's responsibility to use the vote wise- ly. The series ended with the appearance of Ralph Nader in April. Nader's reputation as champion of the consumer drew a large crowd to hear what he had to say.
The next highlight of the series was the performance of John Chapped as Mark Twain. Georgia Congressman, Julian Bond, speaks to students on their rights and responsibilities as citizens and voters. One member of the Don Cossack Dancers performs a traditional Russian folk dance. Above: Fans of Rod McKuen listen intently to the readings of his works. One spectator raises his crutch in the frenzy of the few minutes be- fore the lights came on.
Cactus entertains at the first spring semester concert. Long- requested of the University Center Board, the group performed before a sell-out crowd of students that had filled dormitories with their recorded music for weeks. But, the night of the concert Chicago didn't meet expectations and just Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound through the motions until the closing minutes of the performance. It seem- ed that the crowd was just beginning to get caught up in the performance when they left the stage.
Above, and Top left: Karen and Richard Carpenter sing some of the music that has made the sister-brother act a re- freshing success. A well-received seg- ment of his act was the dancing New Generation, which included Severinson's daughter. Later in the fall, the Carpenters made perhaps the big- gest hit of all, performing their hits "Close to You," "We've Only Just Begun," and "Superstar," plus other popular music.
Top right: Spotlights and moving dancers em- phasize the brilliance of color and sound of Doc Severinson's Homecoming concert. Above: Sev- erinson watches the Eastern-Western battle from the sidelines with Skip Daugherty, student organization and activities director. As in years past, students and faculty looked for excuses to walk through the colorful ravine, radiant with fall colors. Winter's delay kept gloves and scarves packed away and gave students time to enjoy the refreshing weather of the fall semester with hardly a snowflake.
Above: It was always a relief lo hear a professor announce a fall lecture to be held in the fresh air of the ravine. Below: Sunny days' shadows lengthened but did nothing to hamper the spirits of stu- dents as fall began to hint of the coming quiet of winter months. Left: Despite the lingering temperate weather, fallen leaves still served as a har- binger of more bitter weather.
Hot Pants! They're Everywhere! As times and new people demanded change and the campus revolutionized its appearance, so did fashion dictate a new look. No matter where you looked, this fall, spring, and surprisingly, winter, there was a girl in those short "short-shorts," hot pants.
Coeds wiggled to sit properly, squirmed in front of crowds and constantly "yanked" to keep them where they belonged. But, yet each day of the campus revue of legs featur- ed still another pair of hot pants. Center: Patty Fischer hurries her performing Chi O's as the show must go on. Above: A gulp of Gator-aid primes a contestant before a gruelling event. Right: Phi Delt Sam Gano strains to reach the finish line in the stilt-walking event. Students and townspeople alike wandered through the maze booths and tests of skill for just pennies.
Not all the events were exhausting as some all- time favorites, such as the checkers tournament, were enjoyed. None- theless, the competitors couldn't help feeling the pressure Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound each participant having plenty of group representation to cheer him on. Above: Judy Sullivan winces as another pastry goodie finds its mark in the pie-throw.
Friends often meet on campus and pause to con- verse. Above: Brief moments between classes afford an oppor- tunity to exchange hellos and, sometimes, get a little rest. A colorful swarm of kites fill the air as Kappa Alpha Theta mem- bers celebrate their national affiliation.
Encouraged by the warm, sunny days that stretched into December, students turned every campus by-way into a meeting place. Football's excitement generated the larg- est throngs, as sometimes more than 20, fans came to cheer the Colonels, and release the pounding of building tensions by joining in cries of encouragement, victory celebra- tions or the pangs of defeat.
Companionship and anticipation help- ed make the task of float-construction almost a pleasure, and the annual "Is it worth it? And, Queen Marie Covington, like many before her, momentarily forgot her personal mo- ment of glory as the Colonels battled with Western. The Colonels lone touchdown sent cheerleaders and spec- tators alike into ecstacy but, despite the loss, EKU's black Greek organizations still strutted in their annual, post-game Step-in. BynM -St. Selected as Queen from among 15 finalists by a panel of judges, Marie was a member of the Homecoming Court and was Miss Photogenic in the Milestone.
Claudia Cruse wears the crown presented her by Claudia Taylor, the Miss East- ern, after she the Claudia emerged as the victor at the Miss Eastern Pageant held in early February. With the title comes the Here Comes The Sun - Various - While My Guitar Gently Weeps (Covers, Curios And The Music That Inspi of being the University's repre- sentative in both the Mountain Laurel Festi- val and the Miss Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound Scholarship Pageant. A sophomore agriculture major from Louisville, Die Zeigeunerin - Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Geoffrey Parsons* - Liederabend Cruse was selected from 13 contestants.
As her talent, she presented a modern dance number, entitled, "Fancy Pants. Once again the pageant was jointly sponsored by Interfraternity and Panhellenic Councils.
Right: Miss Claudia Cruse begins her reign as Miss Eastern with the traditional walk down the runway. Top Right: The winner receives an embrace from first runner-up Lea Boggio.
Dont Look Back In Anger - Oasis - Its Not Blur!! Claudia is swarmed by congratula- tions from other contestants. Right: Linda Behanan models her choice of formal apparel.
Below: The ten finalists line up for the final judging. Twenty-one contestants competed for the honor, and Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound the judging was complete, Miss Lauretta Harris was named Miss Black Richmond.
First runner-up was Jamesetta Rozier, and Toni Smith was named second runner- up. Left top: Miss Lauretta Harris models her casual wear during the competition. Left center: Lauretta, escorted by Harry Simpson, shows her emotions as she is named the winner. Below: Well-wishers congratulate Miss Harris on her new title. Even with two at work getting the ice off this windshield proves a job.
Snow Hinders Travel When the dreaded snows finally hit, the campus was briefly blanketed by inches of the flakes. Batteries went dead, car windows seemed to disappear and class attendance often dwindled. EKU students were thankful that the fierce cold and snow Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound for barely two weeks. Cold weather hung on but was tolerable.
Left: Snow and ice hampered the sidewalk travelers' jour- neys to class, and many found class attendance too much trouble to venture out. Below: Eastern's drivers are fre- quently restricted to "footin' it" when the winter snows freeze.
Members of the music and speech departments aided in the continuance of the forty-two-year-old tradition. The speaker of the ceremony was the Rev. Shelly Akers of Paris.
The annual performance of Handel's trad- itional Christmas oratorio "Messiah" was held for the 40th consecutive year Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound East- ern's campus. Dean Wilder, a professor of voice at Boston University and the New England Conservatory of Music, was the guest soloist and was backed by the members of the Christmas Oratorio Chorus, consisting of Eastern students and faculty and participants from the Richmond area.
David A. Wehr was the director of the program. Donald Henrickson sings a baritone solo during the perfor- mance of "Messiah". George Muns, chairman of the music department, directs the choir during the Hanging of the Greens ceremony.
Greenery dons the Student Union Building as the Christmas season is officially opened. Left: ferri Sellers, sophomore from Cincinnati, participates in the traditional ceremony. A tree in front of the Keen Johnson Student Union Building served the University Community, while dormitory resi- dents decorated lobbies, windows and, finally, their individual rooms.
This was due, of course, to the fact that pre-registra- tion lowered the number of students who had to pass through the lines. But, some- how, to the participants it didn't seem Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound easier. Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound same problems of closed classes, long lines, and IBM cards were present in full force. However, as always, every student made it through and was ready to begin the classes that had taken so much work to ac- quire. Left: A student pauses during registration to make changes in his schedule. Below: The floor provides both a seat and a desk for fill- ing out IBM cards. Left: Long shadows of evening bring stinging chills after late after- noon labs.
It seemed to be a daily hang-up with the weatherman, and when it did rain, a rainbow of colors spotted the campus like newly bloomed flowers. Students had dif- ferent feelings about the rain. Some hated it and would not go out in it. Some loved it and loved what it did to beautify the cam- pus greenery.
Sometimes a few could be seen running and playing in it. Friendship is sharing an umbrella during a rain storm. Rain or shine, construction workmen keep on the job. Case Hall coeds nonetheless enjoy the first quiet sun. A sure sign of spring is the popular and colorful track shoe. Signs Begin to Appear Promising Warmer Days Kleenex boxes and the infirmary got a workout this spring as students refused to admit it wasn't summer yet!
Donning their bathing suits, coeds hit the sundeck too soon catching the chilling spring breezes. It may have been a bit brisk, but who needed to wear a jacket to the grill? Spring was coming. The signs were around. Trees, grass and vines turned a never-to-be-for- gotten shade of green. A rainbow of colors walked the campus trails adding to the joyous feeling in the air. Once again groups gathered outdoors to converse. And, of course, the magic of spring drew together boy and girl.
The first warming days signaling the end of winter turn the fancies of young men and women]. Held in Martin Hall cafeteria, the games permitted students to legal- ly "win a pile", of play money, that is. Students participating in Las Vegas Night attempt to beat the house. Center: Relief from the stifle of the University Building frequently comes when a class meets outdoors. Even the blue-jean crew is forced to admit the weather calls for cooler attire.
The Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound of getting ready for the day's academic Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound was sometimes a struggle.
The call of the sundecks was too much for sun worshipers to turn down. The tennis courts held a special magnetic field for the sports minded. Those that made it to the high-noon brain drainers found it a necessity to wear the coolest clothing possible. Survival came to many when classes met outside in hopes of catching the refreshing spring breeze. Art students find new ideas with the refreshing atmosphere of an outdoors workroom. Here work progresses on the Jane F. Camp- bell Building, a new fine arts facility.
The William A. Wallace Building was opened at the be- ginning of the fall semester although it was several weeks before the building was en- tirely finished. Students became accustom- ed to attending classes in rooms smelling of paint, or Harmony Of The Underworld - Blue Mitchell - Many Shades Of Blue a workman walking in halfway through a class.
The beginning of spring semester was marked by the opening of the University Center. The Chapel of Meditation was finished as the year closed. The break- ing of ground for the Jane F. Campbell Build- ing shifted construction to a new area of the campus.
Projected opening date for this Fine Arts Building has been set for the fall of Butler break ground for the new Jane F. Campbell Building. A honeycomb of pipes await installation as construction continues.
It was a popular setting where stu- dents gathered for all-campus meetings to discuss such national topics as ecology and peace, as well as the never-tiring campus question of dorm hours. Area clothing merchants sponsored fashion reviews with Eastern stu- dents as the models and political parties campaigned with the challenge Contemplation - McCoy Tyner - The Real McCoy times coming from a hired band drawing listeners to sit and stay awhile.
While he greening ravine collects thirsty students interested in ecology and sun-bathing, campus trash cans bulge with empty cups. Left: A student treks back to her dorm after class. Above: Shade-seeking becomes an activity of students looking for a spot to cool off.
Above: A strolling student is reflected in an auto mirror. Right: A couple talks in one of the campus' secluded areas. Both offered friendly competition not only to Greeks, but also to interested inde- pendents. Baseball, track and field, tennis, and golf occupied EKU's sports-minded.
The University Center Board obtained a wide variety of entertainment favorites, and spring restlessness caused a majority to pack Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound auditorium. Besides the mingling around the new University Center, students still sought the old familiar relaxation of the ravine between classes. Right: A Sigma Chi coach helps one of his team members count coins after searching Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound the pastry mess for points. Below: Friends often gather in the ravine to exchange news and relax from the daily toils of university life.
Many went on to graduate school pursuing their educations. Some had killed time with small circles of friends, while others had made the best through a driving purpose towards a goal. Still another faction had whirled in the depths of campus politics attempting to establish unity through communica- tion. There were those that achieved their objective — be it just a degree, a high GP, or a four-year course in life, experience and participation; a few had actually attained the combination of all three.
No matter what, each individual left his mark and Lass Uns Leben - Westernhagen* - MTV Unplugged his fragment of Eastern along to take a place "out there".
Four friends stand together for maybe the last time as their fathers capture the moment on film. President Robert R. Martin congratulates one of many receiving degrees as those packed in the bleachers wait to see their friends and relatives cross the stage.
Ford, thrust higher education into the spotlight early in his administration which began in December. Aiming for main- tenance of existing programs on Kentucky campuses, the Governor's executive budget made appropriations for continuation of col- lege programs with modest increases for inflationary costs.
The Governor endorsed legislation in the General Assembly to revamp the Council on Public Higher Education, give the vote to student members on state boards of regents, and change the status of some institutions within the state.
To help offset the loss of state revenue by removing sales tax from food, Governor Ford proposed, in his budget, tuition in- creases by the state higher educational in- stitutions, except the University of Louis- ville.
During the campaign, Mr. Ford and his running-mate, Lieutenant Governor Julian Carroll, both made visits to the Eastern campus. Governor Wendell H. Ford succeeded Louie B. Nunn in the Ken- tucky Statehouse in December.
Marvin Edwards, Dr. Donald Haney, Dr. Lyman Ginger. State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Mr. Earle B. Combs, Mr. William L. Robert B. Begley, Mr. Henry Stratton, Mr. Gerald May, Mr. C Powell, board secretary. Beglev and Mr. Combs inspect the floor plans for Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound Jane F. Campbell Building at a Board of Regents' meeting. Regents Make Policy, Approve Bond Sales The Board of Regents, the policy making body of the University, experienced an eventful year which saw the completion of six major buildings and numerous other campus improvements, and broke ground for a new fine arts building.
Buildings completed and dedicated during the year included the new university center, the Powell Building, the William L. Wallace Building, and the Donaldson Service Com- plex. The Board members, appointed to four- year terms by the Governor, are successful men who have made significant contri- butions in their professions. Student and faculty representatives, elected by their peers, serve as non-voting members. Martin's 12th year as chief executive of Eastern Kentucy Uni- versity was one in which his educational leadership extended to both national and international levels.
During the summer, President and Mrs. Martin spent three months in Europe where he studied England's so-called "red brick" colleges, institutions which are similiar in scope and purpose to Kentucky's regional universities. In November, Dr. Martin assumed the presidency of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, an organiza- tion with some member institutions.
On taking the helm of the association, Dr. Mar- tin said that the most immediate task of the association concerns itself with "the resolution Music - Madonna - Music the financial crisis facing higher education today".
Representing the association, Dr. Martin communicated its members' position on the higher education bill introduced in Con- gress to the sponsor of the legislation. He expressed his dismay that no hard, statistical facts were available upon which to base an evaluation of the legislation and urged Con- gress to remedy the situation. Martin reiterated earlier statements that institu- tional aid, student aid, and innovative fund- ing must be integral components of any edu- cation bill.
On the state level, Dr. Martin joined with the Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound of the other three regional universities — Western, Murray and More- head — in taking the interests of the uni- versities and their stude. Locally, President Martin maintained the academic and physical development of the University and established committees to study campus governance, and to prepare for the centennial observance and the South- Association of Colleges and Schools self- study, both events scheduled for the academic year.
He continued the push for further imple- mentation and expansion of student ser- vices and activities, which were enhanced by the January opening of the Powell Build- ing, the new University Center.
Anne Martin, talks with Regent William L. Wallace at a luncheon given in his honor. Right: Dr. Martin enrolls Mrs. Sue Bohon who pushed the fall semester enrollment past 10, Below: Dr. Powell, were recognized with the dedication of the Powell Building, the new University Center. In his No Child Of Mine - Marianne Faithfull - Live In Hollywood (DVD) position, Dr.
Powell exercised authority in the fiscal affairs of the University, including direction and super- vision of the Data Processing Center and the campus Safety and Security operation.
He also acted as recording secretary at meetings of the Board of Regents. The University's fiscal affairs were over- seen by Dr. One of his major assign- ments was the preparation of the biennial budget request which was sub- mitted to the Council on Public Higher Education.
He also has responsibility for preparation of the annual internal budget of the University. Left: Dr. Powell, Vice President for Administration, speaks at a journalism conference which was held at Eastern. Below: The Powell family lays the cornerstone for the Powell Building in ceremonies which opened the new University Center prior to the beginning of the spring Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound. Fall Semester Brings Largest Enrollment The academic year opened with an all-time high enrollment of 10, students, and the administration of scholastic programs for this record student body fell under the direction of Dr. Thomas F. Stovall, Vice Presi- dent for Academic Affairs. Available to the enrollment were 61 undergraduate programs, ranging from the traditional specializations in the arts to the professional pro- grams and areas such as law enforce- ment.
New facilities were added to the academic program this year. The William L. Wallace Building added classroom and office space for several departments, and included a special education center for exceptional children. Ground was broken for another facil- ity, the Jane F. Campbell Building — a fine arts structure.
Graduate program development expanded to include master of arts in eight areas, master of science in 11, including new programs in mathe- matics and recreation. Qualitative changes took place within the faculty. More than 40 per- cent of the teaching staff held the doctorate and an additional 21 per- cent had three years or more of graduate study. Vice President Thomas F. Stovall administers the complex academic pro- grams through close and continuous coordination between his office and the college deans and department chairmen.
Arthur E. Curtis, assistant professor of It Wont Cool Off - Dean Martin - A Winter Romance sciences, speaks at a meeting of the faculty senate, a body which approves program recommendations that have come up through departmental and college curriculum committees.
Leonard C. Taylor, Registrar, makes a last minute check to insure the correct order of the diplomas at graduation. There were also several new pro- grams for students, developed under the direction of Dr. Thomas D. Myers, Vice Pres- ident for Student Affairs.
A more extensive drive was made for more activities in the residence halls. There were three staff members involved in planned activities such as horseback riding and inpromptu coffeehouses in the dorm recreation rooms. Admissions counselors were added to the staff to interview incoming students and help them with their particular problems concerning housing, finances, and medical papers. Left: Mr. Clifford Parsons, a counselor at Ellendale Hall, listens to a student's problem. Below: A packed Alumni Coliseum audience hears a concert by "Chicago," one of the pop music groups brought to campus by the University Center Board.
John D. Rowlett, Vice President for Research and Development, worked closely with the administration and faculty in assist- ing the university to receive federal support for a variety of programs. Rowlett served as the contact person between Eastern, agencies of the federal government, and other organizations.
More than 40 separate grants were re- ceived during the calendar year. Among these were: a nursing education project, funded by the Health Services and Mental Health Administration, to recruit and Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound pare twenty-five students from the Pike County area for service as registered nurses in the new Pikeville Hospital; a grant from the Law Enforcement Assistance Adminis- tration, U. The office's Division of Institutional Re- search, under the direction of Dr.
Dean Acker, Winter - Amebix - Beginning Of The End statistical information con- cerning the characteristics of the student body, grade distributions and other areas to Just A Name - Sonny & Cher - Good Times (Original Film Soundtrack) (8-Track Cartridge, Album) improve services and instruction.
Standardized tests such as the Under- graduate and Graduate Record examinations were administered by the office. Above left: Dr. Rowlell packs his brief case for one of his many trips to Washington.
Director of Institution- al Research, waits for an answer in his Research in Education class. Neal Donaldson, the service complex consists of the L. The complex was designed to serve the maintenance and storage needs of the campus.
Included in the University Center are a 1,seat cafeteria and an seat grill, offering both increased services and longer hours.
An increase in student, faculty, and staff population broadened the scope of opera- tion in virtually every area of business operations, including accounting, the bursar, buildings and grounds, housing, institutional services, personnel services, purchases and stores, the university store and the uni- versity farm. Right: Mr.
Neal Donaldson. Vice President for Business Affairs, is reponsible for a wide range of University financial and service functions. Bill Stapleton. Above: Mr. Donald R. Feltner, Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound president for public affairs, oversees the presentation of the Eastern story to the University's various publics. Below: Mr. Ron G. Wolfe, associate alumni director, and Mr. Charles D. The activities began early with Progress and Appreciation Day at which the Univer- sity reflected over the accomplishments of the past decade and thanked the people of Madison County and the Commonwealth for their support. Also, there were building dedications which included the William L.
Ground was broken for the Jane F. Campbell Building, a new fine arts facility. Public Affairs also coordinated the "Restore Fort Boonesborough" Dinner in association with the Boonesborough State Park Association to generate interest in the restoration of the historic fort area. Stepped-up activity was also reported by all the divisions within the office.
Leroy Barlow, administer the general studies and academic coun- seling programs for lower division students. Below: Major Harley C. Davis discusses military science scheduling with a cadet during fall registration.
Central University College, under the direction of Dr. Clyde J. Lewis, this year initiated several new programs designed to assist the students in making the transition from high school to college and from lower to upper division college study. One major innovation was summer orien- tation and pre-registration, held in coopera- tion with various administrative and academic offices. Several hundred freshmen were fully pre-registered for classes, elimi- nating many of the problems and frustra- tions of the first few days on Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound normally experienced by freshmen. Under the direction of Dr. Wallace Dixon, General Studies Science Director, science courses were added that did not require a lab.
An optional ROTC program for both fresh- men and sophomores replaced the manda- tory system. Below: Dean Lewis checks with general studies program faculty members as fall classes fill with students. Bryan E. Lindsay discusses ideas with his humanities stu- dents during a sensitivity session.
Below: Using gestures, Dr. Charles Sweet gets an idea on unity across to his English composition class. Herman S. Above: Miss Kara L. Stone, social studies instructor, reviews her study plan for the day's lesson. Below left: Looking up from his paper, a student ponders an examination question. Below: GSC students prepare to dissect the fetal pig during lab session. Wallace C. Dixon, chairman of general studies sci- ences, intently listens during a lecture.
In Doc- torow's hands, even a grisly death is illuminating: a gorgeous gangster, his body in a tuxedo, his feet in cement, awaits his fatal exit talking to Billy and singing, "Blackbird, bye, bye. Before you check in at the clinic, better check out the cautionary tale of Vogue beauty director Shirley Lord.
In her racy new thriller, Faces, corrupt doctors peel away clients' wrinkles — as well as a nose or two — and then murder the evi- dence A more valiant surgeon emerges in John Camp's Plastic Surgery, which tracks a doctor and his patients through a catalog of procedures and provides frank talk about risk, pain, results, and cost.
Camp, who thinks society punishes the unbeautiful, subtitled his book "The Kindest Cut. Sequencing recommends having it all but not all at once. And Tender Power urges women to "reclaim theirfeminine qualities without giving up their newfound power.
At least Working Girl's Melanie Griffith was drunk when she said, "I've got a head for business and a bod for sin. Griffith seems to have started a trend. Perhaps the shock of the new will be replaced by the joys of well-trod terrain. Our com- edies encourage infantilism. But only American film sex inspires moviegoers to injure themselves per- manently — in bathtubs, on stove tops, under hedge- rows, inside broom closets. When it comes to sex, Hollywood's twin gods, Fantasy and Excess, exult in the impractical.
This was true even before actual sex was allowed on- screen. Then, Bin Kein Engel - Kristina Bach - Die 1002. Nacht symbols did the job. In The Gang's All Here, for example, we guessed what Busby Berkeley meant when those hundred or so girls, dressed like overripe fruit, found their bananas sudden- ly standing on end.
And we also got the point every time a filmmaker cut away from a couple embracing to a train plunging into a tunnel, a river overflowing its banks, or a bolt of lightning crashing through the sky. Having invested sex with such fantastical properties, Hollywood has apparently had trouble coming to terms with the comparative drudgery of the real act. Showing a couple in bed together, which until the fifties Pagan Poetry - Björk - Vespertine a censorship taboo, has increasingly become an aesthetic taboo.
In contemporary movies, every location has the potential to be an exotic boudoir. Warren No Easy Way Out - Various - Rocky Balboa - The Best Of Rocky, an early pioneer of never-in-a-bed screen sex, illustrated this point in Splendor in the Grass, when he chose a picturesque — and very public — waterfall to first unveil his manhood.
Fourteen years later, in Shampoo, he had graduated to the floor of a cramped bathroom and then a pool house. A model Hollywood lover, Beatty emerged from each encounter troubled by neither whiplash nor emotion — a true Olympian narcissist. His example has fueled the sex scenes of the eight- ies. While such films as Something Wild and Bull Dur- ham pointed out that beds — or more particularly, bed frames — are essential apparatus for bondage fantasies, the decade's most memorable screen couplings have occurred elsewhere.
In Fatal Attraction, Michael Douglas's weekend assignation with Glenn Close begins on the built-in sink of her overdesigned loft. As Douglas makes Close's Cuisinart hum, her bare bottom almost lands in a pile of dirty dishes. Her cleaning lady obviously doesn't work weekends. The couple chooses the ele- vator for a return bout. In No Way Out, Kevin Costner and Sean Young, having just met, retire to the back of Young's limo, where it's sex-at-first-sight under the amused eye of Young's black limo driver.
When it's over, they introduce themselves to each other; clearly, they're in love. In these films, if anything is certain, it's that men must be able to achieve instant arousal anywhere, women want it ev- erywhere, and it's often better in public, hopefully with a poor or not-as-lucky-as-we The British embarrassment about sex has recently come under siege from a new generation of British filmmakers are working-class person watching the gymnastics.
Hol- lywood's message is clear: to survive sex in the modern world, you need not only a condom but a chiropractor. Even such mem- orably romantic films as Brief John Cleese in A Fish Called Wanda Encounter and Room at the Top never strayed far from middle-class gentility: both ultimately advocated unhappy marriages over passionate affairs.
Nevertheless, gritted teeth have not prevented the British from laughing at sex. The enormously popular Carry On movies of the sixties — a cinematic bridge be- tween the Victorian music hall and Benny Hill — found their humor in excruciating double entendres about the erogenous zones — notably breasts large and bottoms smacked.
However, the pneumatic lovelies in these films were paired with leading men so brazenly camp — or so decisively unappealing — that any sexual threat was instantly defused. The British embarrassment about sex, so delightful- ly lampooned by John Cleese in A Fish Called Wanda, has recently come under siege from a new generation of British filmmakers.
For them, Mrs. Thatcher's Con- servative rule has functioned as something of an Poison Red Berries - Ray Dexter - From Midnight Through To 3AM disiac. Lisa, and Wish You Were Here is a taunt, a means of expos- ing the stultification and rot beneath the prim orderli- ness of middle-class life.
The defanged mainstays of British vaudeville — adultery, buggery, whoopee — have returned, this time with fangs bared. The emblem of this new, politicized, socially conscious sex may be a scene in Sammy and Rosie Get Laid. The screen divides into a vertical triptych, showing three pairs of interracial partners humping in furious tandem. We're seeing the melting pot of new British society in midmelt.
FRANCE French film eroticism has always taken off from a high- er, more intellectual level of fantasy than that of other nations. Eric Rohmer's My Night at Maud's, which many people considered one of the sexiest films ever made, was all talk. Though the French affect a casual sophistication in talking about sex, there are surprising- ly few great sex scenes in French Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound — perhaps be- cause deep-down they believe that physical possession snuffs desire.
What you have instead are great ro- mantic moods — inevitably fatalistic — and a stunning procession of actresses — in- evitably paraded as objets d'art. These women serve essentially as validators of male vanity. And the Frenchman apparently cherishes his vanity far more than his female. Accordingly, French films display little affection for the modem woman. Instead we get a sour piece of slut- tishness like Betty Blue, with toothsome, messy- mouthed Beatrice Dalle as sacrificial muse.
The casualness of the sex in that film turns out to be proof of her dementia. Implicit in such films is a hanker- ing for the chivalric codes of old — the days of courtly gallantry and "the eternal feminine. He's too busy embalming her in a romantic fog. JAPAN The infamous closing scene of In the Realm of the Senses, in which the leading lady snips off her lover's privates, exposes the violence underlying Japanese sensuality.
In a society pulled Hellion - W.A.S.P. - Double Live Assassins conflicting im- ages of woman — as revenger, courtesan, mother — the shriek and the sigh are the twin mating calls of sex play.
There may be a third: the giggle. Juzo Itami's Tam- popo, billed as a "noodle Western," exhibits the inti- mate relationship between sex and eating. Few erotic set pieces can match the ones in this film; a white-suited thug and his moll concoct creative uses for everything VOGLE APRIL Movies from crayfish to egg yolks — the latter passed back and forth, unruptured, from mouth to mouth. The French may regard food as a sensual pleasure but in Japan, it seems, food is sex.
The value of love is always in propor- tion to the fear it elicits. From the very beginning, with Un Chien Andalou and L'Age d'Or, Luis Buhuel set himself in opposition to the Catholic Church and gleefully raided the dungeons of re- in Spain, the value of re is always in proportion to the fear it elicits pressed desire.
He's the Big Daddy of Spanish filmmakers, even though most of his movies were made outside Spain. In tone, however, he's somewhat atypi- cal — dry-ice Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound where most of his compatriots are hot-spiced. In recent years, Carlos Saura has upped the humidity in American art Beyond The Reef - Bing* - Sings Songs Of The Islands with his mythic flamenco-thons, I Blood Wedding and Carmen, in which the dancers forever seem to be stamping out the fire of their passions.
There may well be a connection between fla- menco and the Latin penchant for foot fetishism. Pedro Almodovar, whose latest film is Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, has become the great pop pansexualist of post-Franco Spain.
His movies are determinedly apolitical; it's as if he doesn't want to waste a second of his, or his country's, newfound liberation flaying old ene- mies — although he makes an exception for the Catholic Church, to which, no doubt, he's deeply grateful for fostering his highly developed sense of sin. No filmmaker alive has come up with sex scenes as perfervid: for example, the firelit twosome in Matador, in which an ex-bullfighter, rose clenched between his teeth, slides onto his inamorata as Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound poises for the coup de grace. It's an archetypal Spanish sex scene: the mat- ing dance as dance of death. And be- cause the Spanish, unlike the Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound or the French, don't regard passion as ab- surd, this scene, which by all rights should be a hoot, comes across as a scorch- er. It's not your imagination. Most conditioners are virtually pro grammed to build u p, no matter how little you use.
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Look for Neutrogena Conditioner at your drug store. The only thing it leaves behind is wonderfully clean, manageable hair. Thank you for reading our advertisement. As the shipwrecked hero of this verbally sparse but visually lush film, Aidan Quinn teeters delightfully between winsomeness and Natty Dread Something - Yellowman & Fathead - Bad Boy Skanking. Working with less than a page of dialogue, he carries the film from start to finish.
But it is his native companion, Lucky ne Fridaywho supplies the political correction. Unlike Defoe's Friday, Lucky is surprisingly liberated: to this independent savage, the role of ser- vant is as alien and unappealing as Crusoe's gunpowder. Indeed, Lucky has no need for civilized ways at all and gradually convinces So Far Into The Blues - Les Souci - Still Warrior and the viewer of the old notion, made novel, that no culture or race is more advanced than any other.
Cookie Even Emily Lloyd, with her pixie mouth and endless legs, can't save Su- san Seidelman's long-anticipated new movie, Cookie. In this, Lloyd's American film debut, she stars as the smart-ass daughter of mob boss Peter Falk a role not unlike her distinguished part in the recent British hit Wish You Were Here. Although Lloyd's perfect Brooklyn accent is a joy to hear, neither Seidelman's direction nor an uninspired script by Nora Ephron and Alice Arland gives much support.
Most of the jokes just peter out. I mean, this could have been On Golden Pond. As to Miss Firecracker's success as a film, she says, "Well, I liked it.
By American stan- dards, Vera is just a mediocre teen- angst movie featuring a female James Dean: she fights with her parents, smokes cigarettes, listens to rock music, and sleeps with her boyfriend. But in the Soviet Union, this starkly grim depiction of fam- ily discord has broken box-office records and scandalized the nation. Next month, the star, Natalya Ne- goda, will even teach the West a thing or two about decadence when she poses nude in Playboy.
How fitting that the camp followers of artistic freedom are those same principles that govern our great na- tion: sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll. Fori Lee. Theater the bard stripped bare From classics to modern satire, British theater is rediscovering blood and passion. While the few new plays that attack the na- tional soul tend to be thin, the commercial houses of the West End are O 1º Grande Amor - Suzana - 15 Anos classical re- vivals and ambitious new musi- cals.
Britain's two state-aided flagships, have perked up with transfusions of young blood from an exciting new generation of directors. Audiences, meanwhile, are thrilling to blood and passion. Vanessa Redgrave in- vested her improbable casting as an Italian-American with a bitter hilarity that Williams, who is en- joying a posthumous renaissance in Britain, would have recognized as his own.
Although Orpheus bombed on its only Broadway outing inRed- grave is expected to take her performance to New York this fall. Orpheus was also a personal triumph for Peter Hall, who has ended his long and stormy directorship of the National Theatre to mount classics in the West End.
Although Hall began his new role in an old way— by falling out with his producers — his Merchant of Venice, with Dustin Hoffman as Shylock, is still sched- uled for early June. The installation of forty-six-year-old Richard Eyre as Hall's successor at the National Theatre has been like the first days of JFK's reign: all fresh air and pi- zazz.
Eyre's background Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound from the pure entertain- ment of Guys and Dolls to his early work with Britain's more committed — or left wing, as they now say — dra- Caryl Churchill, above, still smiling from the success of Serious Money; right, Jean-Marc Barr and the tragically ferocious Vanessa Redgrave in Peter Hall's Orpheus Descending; and, far right, Ian McKellen, recycling noise into art in Alan Ayckbourn's Henceforward.
It must compete with his own version, dubbed the "Hamlet of the eighties," which deleted the Ghost entirely; Jonathan Pryce starred as a student prince who, in dire need of an exorcist, belched his father's admonitions from somewhere deep inside his gastrointestinal system. The National continues to be locked in mortal rivalry with the Royal Shakespeare Company.
The competi- tion now is not for bright new playwrights the news here is that there is no news but for hot young direc- tors. At least three of them — Nicholas Hytner, Declan Donnellan, and Deborah Warner — are changing the way Britons look at classical theater.
Characteristic of their time, these new directors prefer the class-act robes of Shakespeare and Sophocles over possibly flimsy and fallible new clothes. Theater Donnellan and Hytner may be ne brooms, but like most of the British th atrical establishment, they are Cai bridge men. Wamer, an even young RSC director currently being wooed the NT, is neither Cambridge nor ma But her unblinking treatments of Tit Andronicus and King John soon at t Barbican have earned her a reputati as the most gifted Shakespearean dirt tor in Britain.
This newfound fascination for the olent extends beyond the classics. June, the NT welcomes the torturc mythic adaptation of The Grapes Wrath that was unveiled to enornru acclaim at the Steppenwolf in Chic last year.
Si smarting from the transatlantic deba that was Carrie, the company insi that this play-of-the-film-of-the-bc will not be a musical.
Back in the W End, watch out for Metropolis, a pi; of-the-film that is a musical. In this revivalist climate, origi plays tend to come from older, est lished writers. How appropriate: Majesty the Queen is a central ch ter, imitated perfectly by Prun Scales down to the rigidly right-an elbow dangling the royal handbag forming the queen with his own sum humor "I suppose for me heaverl likely to be a Reinlenderfantasi - Forsvarets Musikkorps Vestlandet* & Knut Buen - Concerto Grotto (Underjordisk Kl of a comedown.
Wl about you? He shows us a Britain set in the near future — which now practically means yesterday — where female robots mind the family and gangs of black- mailing youths control the streets. Ian VlcKellen costars as a composer who -ecycies into art any sound uttered by mmans. The evening doesn't entirely :el but brims with suggestively black wssibilities. Having successfully bashed Britain's yuppie lass in Serious Money, Churchill ex- pends her righteous indignation to both. Max Stafford- "lark, head of the theater and the play's tylish director, describes this clash be- ween two couples: ' 'On the surface the British couple seems rather nasty and leculiar, but ultimately turns out to be nasty and nasty; while the Americans eem genial and friendly, but under- eath are pervasively shallow.
The play itself probably goes urtherthan these national stereotypes. Dinner-party ilk was split down the middle over this trange hybrid of satire and cinematic lelodrama; the climax, in which the ictim-heroine meets a Christ-like eath, inspired both veneration and be- wilderment. New York audiences can - iecide for themselves when it arrives at fie Public Theater in the fall. By that me, Peter Schaffer's Lett ice and Lov- an implausible fantasia on two liddle-aged ladies who turn terrorist, lould already have arrived — hopeful- s 1 with Maggie Smith still in the lead i Die.
And it goes without saying that mdrew Lloyd Webber's forthcoming ew musical. Aspects of Love, will ventually cross the Atlantic. Depend- ig on personal allegiances to the vari- us James Bonds, one can either hope r fear that Roger Moore, its London ar, will come with it.
Probably not. You'd think we were biased. So we commissioned a " blind " taste test among consumers who were liable to be biased against us. We went to vodka and tonic drinkers and ask- ed them to choose between the best selling vodka and a selection of rums from Puerto Rico. Each was mixed with tonic. But were things truly equal? Ours, after all, was a less-familiar taste. Theirs was a tradition.
People tend to like what they are used to. We assume that's because the rums of Puerto Rico, which are aged by law for one year, have a warmer, more alive character than vodka. What else could explain such a defection? Al- though not cast from the heroic mold of Bolshoi men of the sixties and seventies, he is a hotshot and a charmer whose dancing is suffused with a warm muscularity.
Liepa currently lives in Manhattan, but he has nei- ther defected from the Soviet Union nor plans to. His presence at American Ballet Theatre is an example of glasnost in action. Of course, I'll eventually go back home and continue at the Bolshoi. During that time dozens of artists including Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, and Mikhail Baryshnikov have Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound forced to defect from their homeland — usually under soul-wrenching circumstances — in order to find the simple Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound to travel and seek new career opportu- nities.
Maybe they finally listened to all the artists who later said they would prefer to live in Russia if they could be free Let Me Kiss You - Morrissey - You Are The Quarry travel and try new things.
Now we can do that. In Russia we only have very traditional classic ballet. But American dancers get to dance everything, including Russian ballet. She was the first American to dance with the Kirov Ballet since the six- ties. Jaffe's midnight glamour and Liepa's sunniness add up to more than a vivid contrast of physical types; together they form an ironic emblem of current interna- tional dance. Liepa, a Russian, dances with the swag- gering boldness that is the hallmark of the Bolshoi style, yet his temperament Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound puppy-eager and as Amer- ican as a baseball player's. Jaffe, an American, is cold, remote, grand: the archetypal American fantasy of a Russian ballerina. Opposites attract, but not always right away. He still does, but now I'm charmed by it. But thank you way. He lies face down on the bed, his muscular torso and shoulders forming a perfect V.
He turns his head to reveal a sculptural wedge of hair and a set of high cheekbones the size and glossiness of billiard balls. Here is the most dis- tinctive English singer since Boy George displaying his other talent — beauty. Trading glances with Ro- land Gift, you can't help but feel he's getting the bad end of the deal. Is this true?
As Christine Keeler's West Indian lov- er. Gift becomes a symbol of untem- pered passion. Gift's music is also romantically charged.
His band, the Fine Young Cannibals, has re- leased its second album, The Raw and the Cooked — a collection of Nož Za Bostan - Hari - Krvnik Od Ilinchice and sweet love songs that runs the gamut of sixties soul styles, from bouncy Motown pop to doo-wop.
Days - Tom Robinson - Love Over Rage with Andy Cox and David Steele, who formed the band after their previous group, the En- glish Beat, split up, Gift draws portraits of heartache and longing as -he slides from falsetto to a deep mourn- ful moan.
Although all three band members originally got into music through punk rock, the Cannibals have evolved into something even more typically British: a sentimen- tal replica of an old Ameri- can soul group. Gift, in his full-cut, starched white dress shirts and French cuffs, his black features di- vorced from contemporary black culture, seems an im- age from another time, a vessel of soul as pure style. When the Cannibals per- formed in Barry Levin- son's film Tin Men, set in America, they didn't have to alter their dress.
They fit right in. People tend to com- pare me to their favorite singer. At the risk of sounding corny, it's like a dream come true. But at the same time, it's not something I worry about. I worry about sound- ing like me. Debbie Gibson, Electric Youth At- lantic The sound of young America: Under Control - Various - Ibiza Annual 14 good times or bad, she seems to have an unerring musical sense and an unshakable faith in the future.
This is simple — or even simpleminded — music, but like the Monkees or Sonny and Cher, Gibson infuses her jingles with real cultural resonance. Simulta- neously pleasant background and manic foreground music, this record pulls pop apart and puts it back togeth- er in the wrong order.
The Replacements, Don't Tell a Soul Reprise Evolving from boozy melancholy to overt sentimentality, the Minneapolis band turns twenty- something frustration into catchy, af- fecting, guitar-based pop. At times you'd swear you can hear a lace fa brush across a taffeta bodice. Handcrafted by the master watchmakers of Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound. Three elegant bracelet styles, all handmade, accent the pure, simple lines of the thin case. Two bracelets "Damier"on the left and "Milanese" on the right are wrought from 18 kt. The center watch features a deluxe leather strap. Protecting each Rofex movement is a scratch-resistant synthetic sapphire crystal. In three sizes and a choice of dials, the new Rolex Cellinr Collection revives the art of the Renaissance.
Only at your Official Rolex Jeweler. There was no sitting back in his comfortable Upper East Side apartment to pen this work of the imagination.
Maas boarded a plane to London's Heathrow Airport, took another short flight to Bel- fast, and talked to every para- military faction in Northern Ireland — including an active ser- vice unit of the Provisional IRA, which is no mean feat. Most American journalists can't get past the hollow rhetoric of the Provisional IRA's extremely active public-relations department, set up in a ramshackle house on Falls Road in Belfast.
Armed with contacts he'd made in the States and in Ire- land, Maas went on a sinister journey through the city's back streets. To make sure they weren't being follow- ed, the IRA hauled him down different Heartbreaker (7 Mix) - Future (14) - Heartbreaker, led him through an alley between two houses, and pushed him into a kitchen where a woman sat feeding her baby and watching television.
Maas found everybody liked him. One thing both the Catho- lic and Protestant paramilitaries had in common Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound Most American journalists can't get past the hollow rhetoric of the Provisional IRA's active PR department that they were both Maas fans, he says.
Although not known for their literary Ill String Along With You - Brook Benton - Its Just A Matter Of Time, they had all read Ser- pico and The Valachi Papers.
He also penetrated the British government's most se- cret organization, the intelligence service known as MI5, Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound is how responsible for the bulk of British intelligence-gathering in Northern Ireland. These shadowy men, whose official existence was only re- cently acknowledged by the British government, are apparently more reluctant than their CIA counterparts to talk to writers.
They may have been slightly put off because Maas, with his rumpled face and shock of white hair, would look quite at Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound propping up the bar in Falls Road. But Maas set them at ease by the triviality of his questions: "I wanted to know the color of the walls in MI5's headquarters in London, whether the elevators were automatic or manned, the color of the filing cabinets.
They seemed relieved. They told me that stuff, and then they told me some other stuff. Maas made four trips to Northern Ireland during '85 and '86 because he wanted to "convey a realistic pic- ture. The book is not a political tract; it is neither pro- nor anti-IRA.
Maas does not romanticize the IRA as some Irish- Maas catches the right tone of treachery and seediness in scenes that ring horribly Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound Americans his ancestry is Dutch, Ger- man, and Irish are prone to do, although he has emerged with respect for some of them: "They were more so- phisticated than I thought they would be, and I think the new Provisional IRA leaders are more sophisticated than their predecessors.
In one scene, the Provos kneecap a sus- pected informer by drilling two holes through his legs with an electric drill be- cause the drill is less noisy than a gun. It is a scene that rings horribly true. I in- terviewed one young Catholic boy in the late seventies who wtfs punished by the local IRA leaders for a similar of- fense as he walked to school one morn- ing. In that case they shot him through the lower thigh of both legs. What out- raged the boy most, though, was that one of the gunmen sat eating his sand- wiches while the other one shot him.
The narrative is bogged down by lumps of factual description i. It's as easy as abracada- bra! The quick-change magic of paint. Learn the secrets of spong- Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Soundlacquering, marbling and more. From tortoise- shelling to trompe l'oeil, glazing to graining. Butter Crunch - M. Camison* - Pop Arp Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound only by masters of illusion, these tech- niques are revealed in terms every do-it-yourself decorator can understand. Paint Magic takes you room-to-room, walls to woodwork, furniture to floors.
Lavishly illus- trated, with full-color photographs, it's the most complete guide to the special effects of decora- tive paint and finishes. Soft cover, pages. Nothing transforms a room more magi- cally than fabric! Whether your decorating style is traditional or minimal, subtle or lavish, you'll find inspiration on every page!
Techniques, trade secrets, and sewing tips are explained in easy- to-understand language. Hard cover, pages. Resident of NT. CA, CO. MA Ml. When his fi wife died after a car accidentMaas u, left to bring up his son, now a senioi Duke University.
Meanwhile, Maas has caughtB fiction bug. He is starting work op thriller-movie that he says will h. When Nabokov Humbert Humbert schemed to s duce the young Lolita, readers we both Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound and attracted. Now, his first novel, Alexander Stuart cr ates a similar tension with his sto of a family destroyed by incest. Oi summer vacation in a quiet town Devon, far from their home in Lo; don. S art doesn't provide such fairy-til plot twists, but he does offer a rivl ing modern tragedy.
NINA is a fragrance that enhances a woman's personality. Delicate, enchanting and thoroughly feminine, NINA gently wraps you in Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound complex but subtle bouquet. NINA is made primarily from natural essences allowing it to develop beautifully and uniquely on each woman who wears it. Now, through this exclusive offer, you are invited to experience this fragrance masterpiece.
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So look for Streamlines swimwear by Sirena. Then all you have to do to look good in a swimsuit is put one on. Not only did the two of them write often lengthy let- ters to each other when they were apart, but Clementine wrote to him even when they were both at home. Her letters were frequently sharp corrections, and the man who was to the world the image of Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound reacted like Rumpole, who referred to his wife as "she who must be obeyed. He went in a suit. He was in Oslo Various - Televisions Greatest Hits (65 TV Themes!
From The 50s And The 60s) she wrote telling him to write to Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, who had just entertained him in The Hague: "Please write quickly 'in your own paw' before memory fades. They were at home in when Churchill was proposing to continue on from an engagement at MIT to holiday at Lord Beaverbrook's home in Jamaica. Clementine wrote, not once but twice: My Darling: I am so unhappy over Jamaica But as I said in my letter yesterday which I tore up perhaps before you had time to assimilate itI fee I that for you, at this mo- ment of doubt and discouragement among our follow- ers.
You do only just as much as will keep you in Power. But that much is not enough in these hard anx- ious times. If he insisted on going to Jamaica, she said, she could not accompany him, "feeling as I do. In the first section, called "If you do get out," she imagined the consequences, including the possibilities: "You may look around for a scape- goat. I do not want to be it.
You may drink too much for To many people these days it seems peculiar that wives and husbands should write to each other when they are living under the same roof lack of a higher calling.
The third section, "Stay in," is encouraging and consoling. To many people these days it seems peculiar that wives and husbands Trendy Trousers - Dataura - Alternate Frequency write to each other when they are living under the same roof.
But for Clementine ChurchillLady Bird Johnsonand other wives similar- ly placed, what chance would they have of influencing Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound busy husbands if they interrupted them when their minds were on other matters, and spoke to them only hurriedly?
Moreover, these letters, even when they were sharp with advice and correction, also carried warmth and support — "I love you always. Bird" — as did any letters from the husbands, not least Churchill's hand-drawn, signature pig above. Ameri- cans, he said, receive more mail than any other people in the world, and fewer personal letters.
In the same vein, an American sociologist I know says that a letter from an American friend is sel- dom more than an Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound it states that he will be in Boulder, Colorado, the fol- lowing Thursday on the way to Aspen, and asks if they may meet Blues Jam Nº 2 (Part 1) - Jimi Hendrix - Blues Jam lunchwhere- as a letter from an English friend is like a diary he says he will be in town the following Thursday, and then, in explanation, describes the Qui?
- Aznavour* - Palais Des Congres 1994 sent state of his marriage, his need to get away from the children, or his current digestive disorders. The decline in American letter writ- ing is one of the impoverishments of our lives. Letters need not be long, but they should be snatches of autobiography, taken from the day.
They should digress, rely on anecdote and vignette, and, of course, offer a dash of gossip about mutual friends. They should have most of the qualities of good Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Soundand even have one advantage over conversations: one can return to them later. It ran to ninety-one pages of yellow pad. His reply was not quite so long.
Letters should be handwritten, but even if one resorts to a typewriter — but not, God forbid, a word processor — at least the envelope should be handwrit- ten. Because it is with the envelope that the pleasure begins. One takes one's mail out of the box. No fewer than three readings are us ally necessary for a good letter. This especially true since, humanly enoug we tend to read a let quickly first to find wl we want to hear.
Whei unfold the pages, I turn at once to the nal paragraph and the signing-off. If i letter ends with a reasonably adequi expression of continuing affection! Buya spouts jtter are often hidden, because they lance as good conversation does; and le miracle is that, without the presence f the face, the glances are just as easy catch. But the real value of the letter is that ne can return to it even years later. They are records of a friend- nip, its growth and continuity. There is o substitute for them.
Of course, letter writing takes time, leople today think that they are too usy to set aside hours for letter writ- tig. Yet the Victorians and others ''ho did so were among the busiest peo- le who lived, wrote, and acted in pub- c life.
In the anthology Letters in merican History, there is not one letter om the famous we would like to be ithout; yet these were all the most ac- ive people of their times. Besides, not nly are letters engaging to write, be- cause one is conversing with an absent friend who can't interrupt!
One of the hazards of letter writing, of course, is that people then begin to expect them. Once when I had neglect- ed one of my daughters for some time, she wrote to me: "The telephone is a cop-out.
In the s I wrote a letter to my hippie son, chiding him for most of his behav- ior and appearance. His reply defend- ing his choices, though not so long, was substantial. He ended: "Still, I am the only boy at school who gets a ninety- page letter from my dad telling me to get my haircut. They are nourishment. Jayne Loader, who coproduced and codirected The Atomic Cafe, has turned her quirky sensibility to fiction, creating an America just a little wilder than the one we know.
The title story takes the form of a computer game, but in- stead of exploring a distant planet, the player is dropped down — jobless and desperate — in the middle of De- troit. The object is to survive. In ' 'True Confessions' ' Mrs. Carrie Jo Starkweather "confesses" to run- ning away and becoming Mr. Tom Cruise's Hollywood sex slave. It turns out she spent a very different summer at her brother's. She convinces him to spend the summer with her and, now that it's too late, they fall in love.
Loader tackles the bizarre with humor and keeps the writing charm- ing. Anything can happen in Wild America. It's a lot of sports car. But you can handle it. Price subject to change. Sit- ting in his office in a camel-colored corduroy suit, talk- ing about Jocks and Nerds, the survey of twentieth- century men's fashion that opens April 4, he's mild- mannered but mischievous.
When Martin announces he wants to show "men's clothing as a kind of fetish — down to the cuff links," he says it deadpan, as if the fashion-as-fetish idea were the most natural thing in the world. But Martin doesn't just talk a good line. He tosses off these titillating ideas and then goes out and gets the backing to turn them into realities.
Martin arrived at FIT inwhile in the midst of a fourteen-year stint as editor of Arts Magazine. Under his auspices, that dowdy monthly became the least predictable of New York City's art periodicals; in its pages some of the first reports on the East Village scene of the early eighties including Robert Pincus-Witten's gossipy diaries and Nicolas Moufarrege's spaced-out ramblings ran side-by-side with studies of little-known nineteenth-century paint- ers and reviews of shows too odd for other publi- cations to touch.
Martin's offbeat editorship he left last year didn't make anybody totally happy, but it sure kept people guessing. And the high-profile posi- tion thrust Martin — with his gently friendly manner and hard-to-pin-down allegiances — into the role of art-world mystery man, which he obviously enjoys.
What isn't mysterious is that behind Martin's cool, slight- ly whimsical facade lurks a driving Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound. By the mid- Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound he was turning up on panels, juries, and at symposia just about everywhere. It quickly became clear that Arts Magazine — with its dusty offices and staff of approximately one and a half — wasn't going to contain him for long. At FIT Martin has found the perfect setting for his oddball creativity. His unique mix of art and fashion knowledge gives clothing exhibitions an exhilarating new spin. When I Martin talks about clothing, his art background comes to the fore.
He tosses around chunks of Postmodern theory, referring to "deconstructi- '— - vist histories of fashion," or "how a textile becomes meaning. Because feeling comfortable is just as important as feeling pretty. We feel you deserve to wear u apparel that fits as well as it looks. Lhat's why there's Wacoal. Intimate apparel designed to fit your figure — and your fashion sense— pe Beautiful designs made of only the highest quality fabrics, and delicately detailed with exquisite embroid. Let us show you what it means to have a perfect fit.
Keith Donnellan and others, to ensure the determination of reference through description, insisted on supposing a causal relationship between description and referent, yet this causal nexus is also based on convention. Reference and Kripke: rigid designators and possible worlds Then came Saul Kripke, inwith a series of lectures held at Princeton University, entitled Naming and Necessitywhich put the problem of reference into an entirely new light.
Since it remains true that every semantic theory will imply epistemological, as well as ontological questions, Kripke offered some Paradise City - Guns N Roses - Sweet Child O Mine challenges to philosophy, in a to my mind highly original way.
Kripke s main objection to descriptive theories was on the level of both epistemology and ontology. On the level of epistemology ontology will be discussed later he claimed that none of the items of knowledge, given in the descriptions, are necessary facts of our world. The problem is not that items of knowledge, true or false, or even on an ad hoc basis, could not do the job of referring Kripke is very much aware that this is done all the time.
The real problem is that descriptive theorists treat proper names on the same level as descriptions, in other words they regard the proper name Shakespeare to be exactly synonymous with member of the Lord Chamberlain s Men, or the Swan of Avon, or the author of Hamlet. But suppose that Shakespeare never became an actor and playwright, suppose he was not born in Stratford, suppose he was too lazy to write Hamlet, and still we would be able to successfully refer to Shakespeare with the name Shakespeare.
Of course, William Shakespeare could have been named otherwise by his parents, eg Christopher, or Ben, or even Voldemort, although this last one is not very likely.
The fact that Shakespeare happened to be named William is, in itself, not a necessary fact of the world. But once his name was decided on, thename,askripkeputsit,rigidlydesignates cf Kripke refers to the person called William Shakespeare: there is a necessary relationship between the name William Shakespeare and William Shakespeare, the person, while all we can predicate of Shakespeare and thus give also intheformofdescriptions thathewrotehamlet,etc couldhavebeenotherwise, and thus are contingent facts of our world.
Thus, for Kripke, only Shakespeare is Shakespeare, that is, only a genuine identity statement is an analytic truth, and thus a necessary truth in the strict logical sense. By contrast, Shakespeare is identical with the author of Hamlet is not an analytic and, thus, a necessary truth. The problem, then, with the proponents of the descriptive theory of reference, such as Frege or Strawson is that they treated proper names and descriptions as synonymous. Here, of course synonymy is meant not as poetic, or rhetorical, or stylistic synonymy but as strictly cognitive synonymy.
Poetically, no two expressions will ever be totally synonymous cf Quine ButKripke sclaim isthatnotevencognitivelywill adescription of somebody and his or her proper name be synonymous because the criterion of cognitive synonymy is that you can change the two terms the description and the proper name in the same proposition, ie in exactly the same context salva veritate, ie without changing the truth value of the proposition.
But while Shakespeare is Shakespeare is a necessary truth, Shakespeare is identical with the author of Hamlet is not. This, of course, needs further refinement.
The sentence Shakespeare is not Shakespeare can make perfect sense in certain contexts: for example, imagine a scholar who, after having done serious research on Shakespeare s life and work, arrives at the conclusion that everything there is in books, documents, etc about Shakespeare is wrong, he has been mixed up with somebody else from the start this claim, as it is well known, has been made in real life more than once. That scholar, going up to the pulpit at a conference might start his revelatory lecture by telling his audience: Ladies and Gentlemen, Shakespeare was not Shakespeare.
The scholar will wish to say: Shakespeare did not do this or that,didnotwritetheplaysattributedtohim,etc;egsomebodyelsedid. It willbesomekindofknowledgethescholarwillchallenge,notthataperson was identical with himself. Eg somebody enthusiastically tells me about an excellent Hamletperformance he saw and I may respond: Well, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, meaning something like Shakespeare is still one of the best playwright sso what did you expect?
These uses of tautologies are in the Boys will be boys category. Who Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound precisely tell what possible state the world could have been in? Isit, forexample, apossiblestateof theworldthat thereare no human beings, or that there is no language, in it?
These are clearly metaphysical ontological questions I will not go into here. Kripke s definition of rigid designation claims identity for something or somebody in and across all possible worlds, whatever possible worlds may be: for a term X to be a rigid designator is for it to designate refer to Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound identical the same person or object in every possible world where the term designates at all cf Kripke I just note here that in every possible world sounds to me very much like the whole the infinite whole of logical space tautologies leave open in Wittgenstein s Tractatus more on this later.
Possible worlds: and example The concept of possible worlds was introduced not by Wittgenstein but by David K.
Lewisyet Kripke does not conceive of possible worlds the way Lewis does cf Kripke Instead of going into lengthy comparisons, I will give an example.
Actually, ie in our world, it was Al Pacino who got the role but this is a contingent fact of the world that he did; it could have been otherwise, so there is a possible world where the role was played by Robert de Niro.
Kripke s point is that Al Pacino remains Al Pacino, through the rigid designation of his very name, even in the possible world where Robert de Niro played the role. In the possible, alternative world it was not somebody similar to the real Al Pacino who did not get the role as Lewis thinks ; Kripke s proof is that Al Pacino could not have cared less about a similar Al Pacino not getting the role; it would have been the real, thisworld Al Pacino who may have mourned not to have been able to play Michael Corleone, and would have envied Robert de Niro for playing it.
Then Marlon Brando would in fact be giving at least some of the truth conditions that would make the sentence Robert denirosucceededingettingtheroleofmichaelcorleone trueinour real world. But would Marlon Brando, lecturing to de Niro, have said: if you had tried to please the director a bit, etc, and if you had been Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound with yourself? No, Brando took would have taken for granted that de Niro is identical with himself, both in the real world and in the possible world where de Niro got the role.
Existence is not a predicate Similarly, Brando, lecturing to de Niro would not have added: you would have been given the role had you existed, either: that is also taken for granted. I think and this is now my interpretation of Naming and Necessity that Kripke s whole theory about rigid designators revolves around theideathatidentityisnotapredicate.
Itisanage-oldinsight thoughstill contested, of course that existence is not a predicate. It was relying on this thesis that Immanuel Kant demonstrated why Descartes s and, previously, several other philosophers ontological argument about the existence of God was at fault: theytreated existenceas a predicate, ie as an attribute, a quality we may claim about a being cf Kant Descartes s argument was that if we have the concept of God in our minds and we see in thatconceptthat,forexample,godisperfect,thenitwouldbeabsurd,iea logical contradiction to say that he does not exist: the idea of perfection includes or implies existence.
But Kant claims that we cannot treat the predicate exit[s] onthesamelevelas,say, is[be]perfect. IfIcharacterise,for example, my neighbour and say that he is ninety years old, he has white hair, he is six feet tall, he likes apricots, and so on, shall I add, somewhere in myaccount: and, oh,bytheway, heexists?
Notat all: youandihave taken for granted that it only makes sense to give the attributes of someone if the person talked about exists, and thus existence will not be given amongtheattributes. Inasense,inaway,everythingwetalkabout,exists: we may call this mention-existence. Imagining the existence of something is also a kind of mention-existence: My financial position Kant writes is, however, affected very differently by a hundred real thalers than by the mere concept of them that is, of their possibility.
For the ob. ThisistosaythatIcaneasilyimaginethatthereisahundredthalersinmy pocket; from the act of imagination there will not unfortunately be a hundred thalers in my pocket. One of Kant s fundamental insights was and Frege and his followers whole-heartedly agreed as well that from the logical structure of languagewecannottellwhatexistsandwhatdoesnotbecauselanguagewill endow everything with what I call mention-existence.
Looking at the logical structure of language, or the meanings in language, or the grammar of language, or at anything in language will not decide for me whether the things I talk about exist in reality or not.
Bertrand Russell put this insight in the following way: In onesenseit must be admitted that we can never prove the existence of things other than ourselves and our experiences.
No logical absurdity results from the hypothesis that the world consists of myself and my Rain - Angela Aki - Home and feelings and sensations and everything else is mere fancy No wonder that lots of philosophers decided that thematerialworldisonlymyidea butiwillnotgointothat.
Theimportantthingtoseeisthatexistenceisnotapredicateandnothinginlanguage decides whether something does exist in the external world or not. Therefore, from Kant s argument against Descartes it does not follow that God doesnotexist.
WhatfollowsisthatwiththeexistenceofGod and,Iwish to claim, with the existenceof anything we are not in a knowingrelationship: God s existence is something we cannot decide about on the basis of knowledge.
One of the fundamental problems of Western philosophy has been that it put knowledgeon the highest pedestalamong the human faculties, and philosophers tended to discard things we do not know but rather feel, intuit, surmise, aesthetically appreciate.
However, this question cannot be pursued here any longer. Identity, names, essences How about identity? Kripke claims that to deny that people or things are identical with themselves is a logical contradiction This sounds difficult but only until we think of identity as one of the properties, qualities, attributes of a thing, ie until we think about identity as if it wereapredicate,somethingwestateabout an object.
Butwhy is it proper names that as Kripke claims are most likely to become rigid designators? I may also put the question this way: why was it proper names.
Because proper names are more typical of naming particular beings persons or things than other words. Particularity is one of the most important features or characteristics of identity; feature, or characteristic is, I admit, not the most fortunate term because identity is something, as it will become perhaps clearer below, that cannot be analysed any further. Let us say that particularity goes along with identity: identity is always particular.
But the problem is that, on the one hand, practically anything can be a carrier of identity. On the other hand, the fact that a propername is expressiveof identity is often shrouded, veiled by several factors. Practically anything can be expressive of identity because unfortunately anything can be used as a proper name and, thus, become a rigid designator: Kripke at one point acknowledges even demonstratives like this or that as potential rigid designators cf Very confusingly, even descriptions like the Avon of Stratford, or the author of Hamlet can be used as proper names I think it was precisely this that confused Strawson and others.
Even Voldemort [who] wish[es] [the] death is a speaking name for those who know some Latin. It is also very true that eg John Smith is the name of lots of men in the English-speaking world: one relatively common proper name may pick out several individuals. These factors all give less chances to us to see Kripke s point but he does notinsistonthisorthatformofaname;whatheinsistsonisthatthereisa pointwhen,witharigiddesignator,whichisoftenapropername,wegive expression to the identity of a person or thing.
The Kripke-thesis runs as follows although not with Al Pacino but with Richard Nixon : proper names like Al Pacino are rigid designators, for although the man al Pacino might not have been several things he might havenotbecomeanactoretc ,itisnotthecasethathemightnothavebeen AlPacino,ieidenticalwithhimself cfKripke Heofcoursemight have been called something else, had his parents called him otherwise or had his father s surname been something else, or had we another culture where children do not usually inherit their father s surname.
And again it might even be a contingentfact of the world that we identify thingsandpersonsthroughnames. It has often been suggested that Kripke thinks rigid designators are somehow anchored in essential properties of things: that in a proper name, earlier than the naming, some essential properties of the named object or person are dormant or, later than the naming, some essential properties get coded in the name and Kripke thinks it is through being attached to essential properties that a rigid designator becomes rigid cf eg Soames and.
But Kripke openly denies this: Some properties of an object may be essential to it, in that it could not have failed to have them. But Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound properties are not used to identify the object in another possible world, for such an identification is not needed.
Nor need the essential properties of an object be the properties used to identify it in the actualworld,ifindeeditisidentifiedintheactualworldbymeansofproperties Rigid designators often proper names, with the above qualifications do not name or grasp a bundle of properties in persons or objects. Objects or persons do have properties, of course, essential and accidental, ie properties without which they would not be what they are, and, in turn, properties without which they would remain what they are but are still characteristic of them.
That human beings have a heart seems to be an essential property of them, while the colour of their eyes is accidental. But identity like existence is not a characteristic feature, or quality, or property of a thing or person we may predicate of it, or him, or her, either as an essential, or as a an accidental attribute. If it were andthisis Kripke singeniousinsight,ithink itwouldbeapiece of knowledgeor beliefabout thething orperson,with respecttowhich we mayberightorwrong,andthusitwouldbeacontingentfact oftheworld that could have been otherwise.
Yet that something or somebody is identical with itself, himself, herself is a necessary fact of the world and of all possible worlds as well. Kripke s thesis seems to imply that as we are 8 Which implies,again, the non-negligiblemetaphysical questionsaskedabove: isthe factthathumansuselanguageacontingentfactoftheworldaswell? Wouldwehave a concept of identity if there was no language, would we bother about it at all?
This is tantamount to asking: is a world without language a possible state in which the world could have been? That identityis notapredicate doesnot,ofcourse,mean thaticannot use identical with Untitled - Oskar Hallbert - 1123581321345589 (File, Album, MP3). That identity is not a predicate means thatidentityisnotsomethingiattributetoathingorpersonasbeingamong the other properties I know, rightly or wrongly, about the thing or the person.
Or perhaps it should be said that I know identity in a very special sense, as I know that something cannot and could not be otherwise. And eg Shakespeare is identical with Shakespeare is not such a case because thedenialofthissentenceisalogical contradiction unlessonemeansitas the scholar does on the pulpit but that was discussed above. That Shakespeare is Shakespeare, or Shakespeare is identical with Shakespeare is, thus, not stating a fact about the world.
It is a tautology, an analytic truth. And, as Wittgenstein said in the Tractatus: tautologies are unconditionally true, they are not pictures of reality 4. Identity: an example Here is another example, based Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound Kripke 47 51 to explain identity. IhavethistableIamwritingonrightnowinfrontofme: thisisaparticular table. Nowletusnotask: whatcouldatablebeinapossibleworld? Weare talking about this table. I can physically grasp it, I can refer to it but I am not grasping or referring to an abstract it : I am referring to it here and now. Could this table be red in a possible world? In our ordinary world, it happenstobe brown. Of course. Could it be in anotherroom and here another room is taken as a possible world?
Being red or beinginanotherroomareallattributes,qualitiesofanobject. Butitwould still be it, this particular table which could be in another room or could be red, so could be in a possible world; even in the possible world I would be talking about this table. Here this it-ness, this-ness is expressive of the table s identity, something it cannot lose. The table must retain its identity in all possibleworldsbecauseit may changeas many of its qualities as we like, we will still need identity, expressedas this table or it, to be able totellwhathaschangedwithrespecttoit.
Thetablemusthaveidentityinorder that it may have qualities whatever these qualities may be ; otherwise what has changed? These are closer to us than we could know these, we are somehow one with our pain or our hands. To the question: what has changed? I can answer both: the table, or the table s colour. Butitisitscolourthathaschanged,and hereiskripke spoint by it I can not only mean one or other qualities of the table that have remainedunchanged butitcanalsorefertothetable sidentity,whichisnot one of the attributes.
But let us suppose that I change all the attributes of the table: I cut it up into pieces, and make part of the floor of a room from it. Have I changed, with all the attributes,theidentityof thetable as well? Ihave changed the identity of the table which was so-and-so, Future Positive (c) - Keith Mansfield - Future Positive have created a new identity I am expressing with another name, namely, floor, which again has all sorts of properties.
Of course we identify things, so this table, too, through its qualities. But, for Kripke, these qualities are not the bundle that gives the thing identity. Qualities rather hide the fact that there is something, perhaps in the object which is separate and strictly different from all qualities and makes it identical with itself. What is that something?
It seems as if we were looking for the soul of the object, which flickers dimly inside, like the flame of a candle, making the thing whatitis. Butwhatmakesanobjectwhatitis,isstillnotitsidentity: itisits essential qualities.
Yet essential qualities are still qualities and identity is notaquality. Identityis somethingtheobjectwill haveuntilicall it bythe name I have learnt about it. Thename as Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound saw in its form, as a part of language is arbitrary with respect to the object. But it is precisely with respect to the thing s nature its qualities etc that a name is arbitrary. It is true, as I have already pointed out, that there is nothing in the natureofthethingthatwouldpredestinethattheobjectshouldbecalledthis or that. Even motivated names, eg metaphors will carry a fair amount of arbitrariness.
There is motivation behind calling the lowest part of a mountain the foot of the mountain but there was nothing necessary about the metaphorical extension going this way: perhaps the saucer of the mountain, or the sole or toes of the mountain would also do.
There is nothing necessary about seeing, even by a whole speech-community, some analogical relationships which can become the basis of metaphors. If a boy is named after his father, we can see the motivation quite clearly but the decision is not a necessary one: the parents could have decided otherwise; nothing compelled them to name the boy after his father with the Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound of necessity. The name 10 The problemofrigiddesignatorsinvolvesthe problemoffreewilland determinism, too but here these cannot be dealt with. Thename fixesthethingfor ussothatwemayidentifyitassuchandsuch,yetforkripkeidentification comes first and then comes the list of attributes.
To speak about what comes first and later is not a historical, chronological account: identity is so notoriously difficult to talk about because all these happen in one moment : the naming and the possible realisation of the thing s attributes.
AsforKripke,thisfixing,thisdesignation,thisnaming notonlyintheact ofbaptismbutalsowheniuseaname forreferencelateron andtheidentificationofthethingcomesaboutinthesamemomentaswell: onecannot be without theother cf Once an arbitrary name has become the name of the object, it necessarily fixes its identity, or else I use a different name because I have or I think I have identifiedadifferent thing. Logical form and identity: Wittgenstein and Kripke Then what is identity? What is that something which is perhaps in the object as its soul?
Identity is so hard to grasp in fact, to identify because it is not a thing; if it were, we would have a firm grip on it and get to know it. Identity is a referential relation which we seem to take for granted when we use a name.
Identity, I would like to claim and this again is purely my claim is part of our logical attitudetothe world. To make this clearer I would like Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound point out some significant similarities in Kripke s conception of logic and Wittgenstein s standpoint in the Tractatus, although Kripke has often been used to repudiate Wittgensteinian insights eg cf Soames 13 Among other things, the very term rigid designator points towards some affinity between the two positions.
Both Kripke and Wittgenstein seem to hold that it is logic, or, more precisely, the logical structure of language which contains some fundamental, unshakeable, unalterable, unconditional truths with absolute and Sahib Shihab - And All Those Cats certainty, yet these truths are precisely not facts of the world and not facts we know because in the world nothing is unalterable; in the world everything could be otherwise: everything could be true or false and thus these absolute truths are not part of the world.
For Kripke, it seems to me, Kommet Ihr Hirten - Various - Stars Wünschen Frohe Weihnacht an unalterable truth is that things and persons are identical with themselves, for Wittgenstein, in the Tractatus, among other things such an absolute truth is that there is a logical structure logical form.
Wittgenstein evensaysthatthelogicalstructureoflanguageandoftheworldcannotbe talked about: it remains in the realm of the ineffable, the unsayable, the inexpressible but this does not mean that there is no logical structure as it is not the case that what cannot be talked about would be unimportant or. Logical structure is not something we canputintowordsandfurtheranalyseorinterpretwithlanguage,either.
Toputlogical structure,ieour logical relation to the world into words in order to, for example, comment on it would require another standpoint than the one we have, namely a standpoint from which we could see and scrutinise our very attitude.
But this attitude is a part of us it is a pair of irremovable spectacles everyone has ontheirnoses,asitwere : wealwaysalreadyrelatetoeverythingwiththis very attitude, we cannot get, so to speak, before it so that we may then comfortably compare, from the outside, this attitude and the world as two independent phenomena. Thus, it appears to us as tautological, and, hence, as trivial but trivial things seem to be the most evident for us; they literally go without saying.
Ontologically, however, it is an unshakeable part of our being in the sense that it Festering Vomitous Mass - Devourment - 1.3.8., so to speak, a part of our primary, instantaneous relation to the world, a relation we always already take for granted.
Thus, identity is not in the things or persons but rather in us as part of the way we logically relate to the world. Identity can be put on display in the form of tautologies but cannot be further analysed and aswittgensteinproposesitinhis LectureonEthics wecanonly resort to similes and allegories to illustrate them cf Wittgenstein I order to be able to represent logical form, we should have to be able to station ourselves with propositions somewhere outside logic, that is to say outside the world.
Tractatus, 4. What finds its reflection in language, language cannot represent. What expresses itself in language, we cannot express by means of language. Propositions show the logical form of reality. They display it. I think with identity Kripke revived something very significant in philosophy. He revived, among other things, the Kantian insight that with lots of things we are not in a knowing relationship and the Wittgensteinian insight about the nature of necessary or absolute truths: that there are such truthsyettheycanonlybenecessaryiftheyarenot reachedbylanguage which could thematise, interpret, or analyse them because if they were, they would cease to be necessary truths, since language can only thematise things about which we may disagree, which can be true or false.
Let me make this clear: a tautology does not thematise, or interpret, or analyse identity; it expressesit, it puts identity on display.
And, at the same time, and very curiously, these ineffable truths are the ones on which Župsko Kolo - Various - Pesme I Igre Naroda Jugoslavije (Narodne Pesme I Igre Iz Srbije, Bosne, Kosm build when we relate to the world, for example Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound we wish to get to know the world, when we talk, when we do anything. Identity and Chick Habit - The Hillbilly Moon Explosion - My Love For Evermore being Mostoftheideasthatfollowmaysoundweird;thebestisiftheyaretreated as indices of the various directions I would like to go with the problem of identity and, of course, meaning; the two are inseparable.
I take it to be a wonderful gem of wisdom that the Old Testament author, whoever he was, put this sentence into God s mouth when Moses asks about God s name: I am that I am, a tautology. Second, if God is the Lord of creation, ie that He is the source of all beings as I think the Old Testament author believed this to be the case then identity is being, and also the source of being.
I do not wish to raise theological issues, I am merely asking: is it possible, now philosophically, that identity precedes being, that is, existence as the Biblical author seems to imply?
When philosophers, such as Heidegger, 13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? Yet could it be that, following the Kripkean and Wittgensteinian path, we could approach the question of beingthroughidentity?
Or let me put it this way: when we identify something then, with the same stroke, we grant it being as well, identity being the source of being, as it were. Perhaps our most fundamental, non-predicative but logical relationship with the world is not being, but identity which is, as I have tried to argue, not a predicative relation, either.
Personal identity How does Kripke s insight that the name is expressive of the identity of a particular thing or person relate to personal identity? I am not completely identical even eg with my yesterday s self, so this is the self which is capable of changing. It is ipseity which is capable of recognising him-or herself in the Other too; it is the self as ipseity who realises that his or her identity is, at least partly, giveninotherpeople,asifotherswere mirrors oftheself.
Much depends on to what extent we interpret Kripke s rigidity in designation, ie his insistence that the name Vigliacchi - Saverio Lanza - Ce LHai Una Sigaretta? expressive of an identity the person cannot lose in any possible world.
Should we say that, indeed, the rigid identification of identity is also expressive of one s uniqueness? It is, as I pointed out, precisely not the bunch of essential qualities of the human being as such which is in question; Kripkean identity, I think, can be interpreted precisely in terms of personal identity in the sense of uniqueness, 14 At one point,kripkesayssomethingveryinteresting: Once we vegot the thing, we know that it existed 29, emphasis mine.
This leads me to another question. Granting identity on the basis of personal identity selfhood Could it be that names are expressive of identity because, in one way or another, Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound grant identity to everything and this granting is based on our very awareness of our selves?
Let me put it this way: when we grow consciousofthingsaroundus,ieweareabletoreflectonthings,wearealsocapableofreflectingonourselves. Whenwebecomeawareoftheworld,we also become aware of ourselves and vice versa: gaining self-consciousness surely goes hand in hand with growing conscious of what is outside of us over there, in the world.
I know this is a very difficult question and I will of course not go into it. But provided the above account is not too incredible, I would like to ask: is it possible that we grant identity to persons and things around us using ourselves, our identity, as a model?
Granting identity might be further described as acknowledging the Other asabeingandthathe,orshe,oritisauniquepersonality. Letmeillustrate this in terms of a credit transaction: granting identity to the Other is like givingtheotherachequewhichisalreadysignedbymebutthefigure,the amounttheothercanhaveaccessto,hasbeenkeptblank: anyamountcan be written there.
The space for the amount is not filled in because I do not have access to the content of the Other s Dont You Remember - Dean Martin - Return To Me but with the handing over of the cheque I grant, I acknowledge that he, or she, or it is unique. AsIam far from knowingmyself, toobut Iam aware that Iam unique, I am like nobody else.
Self-identity and lending one s identity: identification with fictitious beings WhathappenstomyidentitywhenIreadanovel,watchaplayorfilm,etc, and, as we say, I identify, more or less, with one or more of the characters? Let us take the perhaps crudest Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound when an actor here Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound will stick to a he personifies somebody on the stage. The age-old question is: does the Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Soundlending his identity to, say, Hamlet, lose his personal identity while he is Hamlet because for three hours he is not, say, Lawrence Olivier but. And how about the identity of Hamlet himself, the role, the role being, after all, first and foremost a text? But the text implies movement, postures, gestures, etc.
So is then Hamlet all these, ceasing to exist when he is not personified? Or was it Shakespeare who gave identity to Hamlet when he named him Hamlet? But we know that Hamlet Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound existed in Danish chronicles: was it Saxo Grammaticus, author of the first connected account of the hero whom later ages know as Hamlet Jenkinsin his Historia Danicae, who identified Hamlet with, in fact, not the name Hamlet but Amleth? However, Saxo wrote his piece at the endof the12th centurybutit wasonlypublishedfor thefirsttimein DoesHamlet have an identityfrom theendof the12th century,fromor from when most probably Shakespeare wrote Hamlet cf Jenkins 85 86?
Or is naming a fictitious character a different business than namingarealbeing? ButwhatifSaxoconsideredHamlettobeahistorical, ie real figure? From the point of view of the actor we may perhaps claim that if we treatthestageordramaasa possibleworld,then,onthebasisofkripke s famous dictum, we should say that the person personifying Hamlet does notlosehisidentitywhileheishamlet;hewillremaineglawrenceolivier forthoseroughlythreehoursheneedsinordertoacthamletout. Buthow does his identity, now in the sense of uniqueness, relate to his interpretation of the role?
Will his uniqueness be the core of Hamlet s identity? I think acting differs from granting identity in the fact that acting is also lending identity. But how is that done? And does not the author, or even the viewer, or reader lend some of his or her identity to Hamlet?
Philosophers often like to treat the problem of fiction, acting etc as something totally different from everyday life, hence willy-nilly implying that what happens in fiction, on the stage etc, cannot inform the questions we are concerned with in real life and, thus, in philosophy.
I do Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound think this would Jesus Loves The Demons - Escanna / Youre Smiling Now But Well All Turn Into Demons - Escanna And Y true.
At least some of the things that happen in fiction and at least some of the ways in which we relate to fiction may help us to genuinely philosophical insights and are applicable in everyday life as well. If we consider this question from the point of view of the author, we may find that the author of the fictitious character named Hamlet, did, I claim, Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope .
With The Visual Sound the same thing we do when we name a real person. When the arbitrary name Hamlet became the name of Hamlet the character, the name became expressive of Hamlet being identical with Hamlet. Yet and here I think there is some benefit for philosophy from fiction the case Water Under The Bridge - Mathilde Santing - Water Under The Bridge the author naming a fictitious character makes it more obvious, the case of the author displays more perspicuously, what we do in real life.
But do we not do exactly the same thing with real-life characters as well? I offer the following analogy: if I child is taken from an orphanage, itisobviousthechildwasadopted. Butisitnotalsotruethatparentshave to Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound even their natural biological child and, as a matter of fact, the child his or her parents?
Fiction, in this analogy, plays the role of the orphanage: fiction only sharpens, magnifies or amplifies what the case in reallife happenstobe. Wedonotonlyseeourselves,asinamirror,inthe Other. We are also creators: creators of the identity of the Other, including fictitious characters. Closing Identity seems to me to be a battlefield where ultimately only questions remain standing. One last of these may be put this way: is the author of a textidenticalwithhistext?
Am I identical with the text s meaning? I would say no; the text may be typical of, but not identical with, the author. Donnellan, Keith. Reference and Definite Descriptions. In: A. Martinich ed. Martinich and David Sosa eds. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Malden, Mass. On Sense and Reference. In: Michael Beaney ed.
Oxford: Blackwell Gadamer, Hans Georg . Warheit und Methode. The Basics of a Philosophical Hermeneutics]. Gesammelte Werke. Band 1. Heremeneuik I.
Seventh ed. In Heidegger Gesamtaufgabe. Frankfurt Am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. William Shakespeare: Hamlet. The Arden edition. London and New York: Methuen. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 1: Kant, Immanuel .
Critique of Pure Reason. Londonand New York:Macmillanand Co. Martin s Press. Kripke, Saul Naming and Necessity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
New York and Evaston: Harper and Row. Russell, Bertrand . On Denoting. The Age of Meaning. In: Strawson Individuals. London: Methuen Strawson, Peter . On Referring. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. London: Routledge. Wittgenstein, Ludwig  A Lecture Easy Footin Adrienne - Scope (18) - Broaden Your Scope . With The Visual Sound Ethics. In: James Klagge and Alfred Nordman eds. Philosophical Investigations. The German text, with a Revised English Translation, trans. Erre utal Beda Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Budapest: Balassi. Codrescu, Andrei The Hole in the Flag. New York: Avon Books. Szeged: Ictus. Gyimesi Timea. Les Figures du discours.
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