With resources depleted and supply lines overextended, Napoleon's weakened forces moved into Moscow, which they occupied with little resistance. Expecting capitulation from the displaced Tsar Alexander Ithe French instead found themselves in a barren and desolate city, parts of which the retreating Russian Army had burned to the ground. Deprived of winter stores, Napoleon had to retreat.
Beginning on October 19 and lasting well into December, the French Army faced several overwhelming obstacles on its long retreat: faminetyphusfrigid Vanilla Fudge - Psychedelic Sundae: The Best Of, harassing cossacksand Russian forces barring the way out of the country.
The Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker of Christ the Saviourcommissioned in by Tsar Alexander I to commemorate the Russian victory, was nearing completion in Moscow in ; the 25th anniversary of the coronation of Alexander II would be at hand in ; and the All-Russia Arts and Industry Exhibition at Moscow was in the planning stage. Tchaikovsky's friend and mentor Nikolai Rubinstein suggested that he write a grand commemorative piece for use in related festivities.
Tchaikovsky began work on the project on October 12,finishing it six weeks later. Organizers planned to have the overture performed in the square before the cathedral, with a brass band to reinforce the orchestra, the bells of the cathedral, and all the others in downtown Moscow playing " zvons " pealing bells on cue—and cannons, fired from an electric switch panel to achieve the precision the musical score required.
However, this performance did not take place, possibly due in part to the over-ambitious plan. Regardless, the assassination of Alexander II that March deflated much of the impetus for the project.
Induring the All-Russia Arts and Industry Exhibition, the Overture was performed in a tent next to the unfinished cathedral. Meanwhile, Tchaikovsky complained to his patron Nadezhda von Meck that he was " It is this work that would make the Tchaikovsky estate exceptionally wealthy, as it is one of the most performed and recorded works from his catalog. In Russia during the Communist erathe Tsar's anthem melody was replaced with the chorus "Glory, Glory to you, holy Rus'! With the end of the Soviet Unionthe original score returned.
As a rousing patriotic hymn, the Overture has subsequently been adapted into and associated with other contexts than that of the Russian fighting. The Overture is popularly known  in the United States as a symbol of the United States Independence Daya tradition that dates to a choice made by Arthur Fiedler for a performance of July 4 of the Boston Pops.
Then, the French National anthemLa Marseillaiseis heard, representing the invading French army. At this point, five cannon shots are heard, representing the Battle of Borodino. This is where the Marseillaise is most prominent, and seems to be winning. After this, a long descending run represents the French army retreating out of Moscow. At the end of this run the hymn that the piece begins with is repeated.
This can be interpreted as prayers being answered. The grand finale culminates with eleven more cannon shots and the melody of God Save the Tsar! Although La Marseillaise was chosen as the French national anthem init was banned by Napoleon in and would not have been played during the Russian campaign.
It was reinstated as the French Anthem in —the year before the commission of the overture—which can Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker its use by Tchaikovsky in the overture. Although God Save the Tsar! There was no official Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker anthem Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker from which time until the anthem was Molitva russkikh"The Prayer of the Russians," sung to the tune of God Save the King.
O Lord, Save thy People represents the praying for deliverance from the invading army. A part of this hymn translates to "Grant victory to all Orthodox Christians over their enemies. Later in the piece when La Marseillaise is played, it seems as Everything Is Dead - Melt - Emissions Of Hypocrisy the Russians will lose the battle.
The ringing chimes are written to represent the bells of Moscow. In a live performance, the logistics of safety Chick Churchill - You And Me / Come And Join Me precision in placement of the shots require either well-drilled military crews using modern cannonor the use of sixteen pieces of muzzle-loading artillery, since any reloading schemes, to attain the sixteen shots, or even a semblance of them, in the two-minute time span involved, makes safety and precision impossible with s artillery.
Time lag alone precludes implementation of cues for the shots for fewer than sixteen era field pieces. Musicologists [ who? Emil Oberhoffer founded the orchestra as the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra inand it gave its first performance on November 5 of that year in Minneapolis's Exposition Building. It makes its home in downtown Minneapolis at Orchestra Hallwhich was built for the ensemble in The orchestra's previous hall, starting inwas Northrop Memorial Auditorium on the University of Minnesota 's Minneapolis campus.
In the Minnesota Orchestra's assets began declining, a trend exacerbated by the financial crisis of — During andthe orchestra's board reported a balanced budget and drew on its endowment to cover operational deficits.
On October 1,the Minnesota Orchestral Association the orchestra's governing body locked out the orchestra's Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker and canceled concerts through November 18 after failing to reach a new collective bargaining agreement.
The musicians and their union took the position that the proposed cuts were so deep and draconian as to represent an existential threat to the future of the orchestra. The entire —13 concert season was canceled. On January 14,the Musicians of the Minnesota Orchestra announced that they had reached a collective bargaining agreement with the Minnesota Orchestra Association to end the lockout on February 1, The orchestra first began recording by the acoustical process under Henri Verbrugghen in for Brunswickand in the following years produced some landmark records.
Among these was the first electrical recording of Mahler's Resurrection Symphony with Eugene Ormandywho recorded extensively with the orchestra for RCA Victor in the s. Alexandre Benois described the choreography of the battle scene as confusing: "One can not understand anything.
Disorderly pushing about from corner to corner and running backwards and forwards — quite amateurish. The libretto was criticized as "lopsided"  and for not being faithful to the Hoffmann tale. Much of the criticism focused on the featuring of children so prominently in the ballet,  and many bemoaned the fact that the ballerina did not dance until the Grand Pas de Deux near the end of the second act which did not occur until nearly midnight during the program.
Some critics called it Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker rich in detailed inspiration" and "from beginning to end, beautiful, melodious, original, and characteristic". Inchoreographer Alexander Gorsky staged a production which eliminated the Sugar Plum Fairy and her Cavalier and gave their dances to Clara and the Nutcracker Prince, who were played by adults instead of children.
This was the first production to do so. An abridged version of the ballet was first performed outside Russia in Budapest Royal Opera House inwith choreography by Ede Brada. The Vainonen version influenced several later productions.
The first complete performance outside Russia took place in England in staged by Nicholas Sergeyev after Petipa's original choreography. Annual performances of the ballet have been staged there since It has been performed every year since by the Christensen-founded Ballet West. Since Gorsky, Vainonen and Balanchine's productions, many other choreographers have made their own versions.
Some institute the changes made by Gorsky and Vainonen while others, like Balanchine, utilize the original libretto. In recent years, revisionist productions, including those by Mark MorrisMatthew Bourneand Mikhail Chemiakin have appeared; these depart radically from both the original libretto and Vainonen's revival, while Maurice Bejart 's version completely discards the original plot and characters.
In addition to annual live stagings of the work, many productions have also been televised or released on home video. The following extrapolation of the Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker in order of appearance is drawn from an examination of the stage directions in the score.
Below is a synopsis based on the original libretto by Marius Petipa. The story varies from production to production, though most follow the basic outline. The names of the characters also vary. In the original E. In the adaptation by Dumas on which Petipa based his libretto, her name is Marie Silberhaus. It is Christmas Eve. Family and friends have gathered in the parlor to decorate the beautiful Christmas tree in preparation for the party. Once the tree is finished, the children are sent for.
They stand in awe of the tree sparkling with candles and decorations. The party begins. Suddenly, as the owl-topped grandmother clock strikes eight, a mysterious figure enters the room.
It is Drosselmeyer, a local councilman, magician, and Clara's godfather. He is also a talented toymaker who has brought with him gifts for the children, including four lifelike dolls who dance to the delight of all.
Clara and Fritz are sad to see the dolls being taken away, but Drosselmeyer has yet another toy for them: a wooden nutcracker carved in the shape of a little man. The other children ignore it, but Clara immediately takes a liking to it. Fritz, however, breaks it, and Clara is heartbroken.
During the night, after everyone else has gone to bed, Clara returns to the parlor to check on her beloved nutcracker. As she reaches the little bed, the clock strikes midnight and she looks up to see Drosselmeyer perched atop it. Suddenly, mice begin to fill the room and the Christmas tree begins to grow to dizzying heights. The nutcracker also grows to life size. Clara finds herself in the midst of a battle between an army of gingerbread soldiers and the mice, led by their king.
The mice begin to eat the gingerbread soldiers. The nutcracker appears to lead the soldiers, who are joined by tin soldiersand by dolls who serve as doctors to carry away the wounded. As the Mouse King advances on the still-wounded nutcracker, Clara throws her slipper at him, distracting him long enough for the nutcracker to stab him. The mice retreat and the nutcracker is transformed into a handsome Prince.
He recounts for her how he had been saved from the Mouse King by Clara and transformed back into himself. In honor of the young heroine, a celebration of sweets from around the world is produced: chocolate from Spain, coffee from Arabia,   tea from China,  and candy canes from Russia  all dance for their amusement; Danish shepherdesses perform on their flutes; Dogkillers !
- Various - Indétendances 30 Mother Ginger has her children, the Polichinelles, emerge from under her enormous hoop skirt to dance; a string of beautiful flowers perform a waltz. A final waltz is performed by all the sweets, after which the Sugar Plum Fairy ushers Clara and the Prince down from their throne. He bows to her, she kisses Clara goodbye, and leads them to a reindeer drawn sleigh. It takes off as they wave goodbye to all the subjects who wave back.
In the original libretto, the ballet's apotheosis "represents a large beehive with flying bees, closely guarding their riches". The Nutcracker is one of the composer's most popular compositions. The music belongs to the Romantic period and contains some of his most memorable melodies, several of which are frequently used in television and film. They are often heard in TV commercials shown during the Christmas season. Tchaikovsky All-4-One - Yo Te Voy A Querer said to have argued with a friend who wagered that the composer could not write a melody based on a one-octave scale in sequence.
Tchaikovsky asked if it mattered whether the notes were in ascending or descending order and was assured it did not. This resulted in the Adagio from the Grand pas de deuxwhich, in the ballet, nearly always immediately follows the "Waltz of the Flowers".
A story is also told that Tchaikovsky's sister had died shortly before he began composition of the ballet and that his sister's death influenced him to compose a melancholy, descending scale melody Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker the adagio of the Grand Pas de Deux. One novelty in Tchaikovsky's original score You Send Me - Ponderosa Twins + One - You Send Me the use of the celestaa new instrument Tchaikovsky had discovered in Paris.
He Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker it genuinely for the character of the Sugar Plum Fairy to characterize her because of its "heavenly sweet sound". It appears not only in her "Dance" but also in other passages in Act Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker.
However, he first wrote for the celesta in his symphonic ballad The Voyevoda the previous year. His autobiography, Notes of Seven Decadeswas published in This entitled him to use the post-nominal letters KBE.
By convention honorary knights do not generally use the "Sir" unless they subsequently acquire UK citizenship. His wife was Ilse von Alpenheiman Austrian pianist.
The albums were recorded in mono in andfor Mercury Recordswith the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra later renamed the Minnesota Orchestraas part of their famous "Living Presence" series. All three ballets were at first issued separately, but were later re-issued in a 6-LP set. Dorati never re-recorded Swan Lakebut he did make a stereo recording of The Sleeping Beauty again complete Overture - Tchaikovsky* : Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Conducted By Antal Dorati - The Nutcracker the Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam for Philips Classics Recordsand two complete recordings in stereo of "The Nutcracker", one with the London Symphony Orchestra again for Mercuryand the other with the Concertgebouw Orchestra for Philips - all this within a span of about twenty-seven years.
He also recorded all four of Tchaikovsky's orchestral suites with the New Philharmonia Orchestraand he was the first conductor to Vigliacchi - Saverio Lanza - Ce LHai Una Sigaretta? a recording of Tchaikovsky's "" Overture featuring the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra with real cannons, brass band, and church bells, first in mono in and then in stereo in Both the mono and stereo "" versions sold over one million copies, and awarded a gold disc by the RIAA.
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