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...Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage


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Quiet Life. I Second That Emotion. European Son John Punter 12" Mix. I Second That Emotion 12" Version. Life In Tokyo Long Version. Bonus Videos Not Listed on Release. Late Night Mischief Imagination. Track Listing. Adolescent Sex. David Sylvian. Communist China. Suburban Berlin. Life in Tokyo. European Son. Just like neighbouring South Africa, Rhodesia was barred from both competing against and participating with Commonwealth member countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the unrecognised state of Rhodesia. For the British colony, see Southern Rhodesia. For other uses, see Rhodesia disambiguation. .Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage — Coat of arms. English official [1] Shona Ndebele Afrikaans. Rhodesian pound Rhodesian dollar The highest official of Rhodesia held the title "Officer Administering the Government" OAtG as he acted in lieu of the official Governor, who remained at .Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage post but was ignored.

Main article: History of Rhodesia. Part of Times We Share - The Difference - Speakers And Followers series on the. Lancaster House Agreement. Main article: Rhodesian Bush War. The geographical situation in left, on UDI and right, after the independence of Mozambique and Angola from Portugal. Green: Rhodesia; purple: friendly nations; orange: hostile states; grey: neutral countries.

Doggyland - Snoop Doggy Dogg* - Tha Doggfather article: Climate of Zimbabwe. Main article: Wildlife of Zimbabwe. Constitutional history. General Political parties.

Foreign relations. National symbols. Flag other flags Anthem. Other countries Atlas. Main article: Politics of Rhodesia. Main article: Rhodesian Security Forces. Main article: Rhodesia and weapons of mass destruction. Main article: Economic history of Zimbabwe. Main article: Languages of Zimbabwe. Main article: Religion in Zimbabwe. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may .Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage challenged and removed. The Chambers Dictionary. Allied Publishers. Ian Douglas Smith. Salisbury: M. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 9 October Archived from the original on 24 June Archived from the original on 15 January Archived from the original on 6 July Archived from the original on 10 May The Economy of British Central Africa.

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Archived from the original on 12 May The African File. Archived from the original on 16 July Archived from the original on 24 December Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 23 August Ill String Along With You - Brook Benton - Its Just A Matter Of Time The Great Betrayal.

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Smith and F. Becoming Zimbabwe: A History from the pre-colonial period to We are everywhere: Narratives from Rhodesian guerillas. Archived from the original on 20 May Archived from the original on 25 December United Nations. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original on 9 May Archived PDF from the original on 10 November Archived from the original on 1 June The Past is Another Country.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Tin Drum. Tin Drum is the fifth and final studio album by English band Japan, released in November by record label Virgin.

It peaked at No. Gentlemen Take Polaroids. Adolescent Sex. Adolescent Sex is the debut album by the English band Japan, released in April by record label Hansa. To avoid controversy over .Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage title, the album was renamed simply as .Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage in some The Age Of Love - Various - Techno Trax. Quiet Life.

Quiet Life is the third studio album .Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage English new wave band Japan, first released in 20 December in Japan, Germany, Canada and other countries, then in the UK in 4 January by record label Hansa.


Lets Play Winter - Hitomi - Peace, Desperate - David Archuleta - David Archuleta, Gangland - Iron Maiden - The Number Of The Beast, Times We Share - The Difference - Speakers And Followers, Tau Here - The Royal Polynesians Featuring Charles Mauu - Polynesia! - Native Songs And Dances From, Zjednoczone Emiraty Poznańskie (Magiera Remix) - Killaz Group - Zjednoczone Emiraty Poznańskie, Am I Ready - Elvis Presley - California Holiday, PDX To Seatac Dub - Necessary Intergalactic Cooperation - NIC In Dub, Think Twice - Wonderland (44) - Glad Again, Its Getting Better - Various - Music For Pleasure

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6 thoughts on “ ...Rhodesia - Japan - Assemblage

  1. The compilation Assemblage gives a skewed, incomplete picture of Japan's early career; this is not necessarily a bad thing, as Japan's early career frankly wasn't very good, and it certainly had little to do with the mature, studied art-pop of their later albums.5/
  2. Apr 15,  · April 15, referencing Assemblage, CD, Comp, Enh, RM, Dig, Mediocre art restoration (blurry with evident creases on the single scans in the booklet - it's not that hard to do, it just looks rushed)/5().
  3. Jun 16,  · Quiet Life is the third studio album by English new wave band Japan, first released in 20 December in Japan, Germany, Canada and other countries, then in the UK in 4 January by record label Hansa. The album was a transition from the glam rock-influenced style of previous albums to a synthpop style/5(12).
  4. Rhodesia was the de facto successor state to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, which had been self-governing since achieving responsible government in A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland (later Botswana) to the southwest, Zambia to Capital and largest city: Salisbury.
  5. Rhodesia was the de facto successor state to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia , which had been self-governing since achieving responsible government in |A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland later Botswana to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique a Portuguese province until to the east.|In the late 19th century, the territory north of the Transvaal was chartered to the British South Africa Company , led by Cecil Rhodes.|Rhodes and his Pioneer Column marched north in , acquiring a huge block of territory that the company would rule until the early s.|In , the company's charter was revoked, and Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature.|The decolonisation of Africa in the early s alarmed a significant proportion of Rhodesia's white population.|In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule , Rhodesia's predominantly white government issued its own Unilateral Declaration of Independence UDI from the United Kingdom on 11 November |The government of the United Kingdom supported Rhodesia's transition to a multiracial democracy.|The UDI administration initially sought recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth of Nations , but reconstituted itself as a republic in |However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed.|By December , Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to briefly revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise.|It finally achieved internationally recognised independence in April as the Republic of Zimbabwe.|Rhodesia's largest cities were its capital, Salisbury , and Bulawayo.|Rhodesia developed an economy largely dependent on agriculture, manufacturing, and mining.|Its largest exports were chromium , tobacco , and steel.|International sanctions put increasing pressure on the country as time went on.|The unicameral Legislative Assembly was predominantly white, with minority of seats reserved for blacks.|Following the declaration of a republic in , this was replaced by a bicameral Parliament with a House of Assembly and a Senate.|The Westminster system was retained, with the President acting as ceremonial head of state, and the Prime Minister , heading the Cabinet , as head of government.|The official name of the country, according to the constitution adopted concurrently with the UDI in , was Rhodesia.|This was not the case under British law , however, which considered the territory's legal name to be Southern Rhodesia, the name given to the country in during the British South Africa Company 's administration of the Rhodesias , and retained by the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia after the end of company rule in |This naming dispute dated back to October , when Northern Rhodesia became independent from the UK and concurrently changed its name to Zambia.|The Southern Rhodesian colonial government in Salisbury felt that in the absence of a "Northern" Rhodesia, the continued use of "Southern" was superfluous.|It passed legislation to become simply Rhodesia, but the British government refused to approve this on the grounds that the country's name was defined by British legislation, so could not be altered by the colonial government.|Salisbury went on using the shortened name in an official manner nevertheless, [4] while the British government continued referring to the country as Southern Rhodesia.|This situation continued throughout the UDI period.|Until after World War II , the landlocked British possession of Southern Rhodesia was not developed as an indigenous African territory, but rather as a unique state that reflected its multiracial character.|In view of the outcome of the referendum, the territory was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September |Over the course of the next three decades, Southern Rhodesia experienced a degree of economic expansion and industrialisation almost unrivaled in sub-Saharan Africa.|In , Southern Rhodesia merged with the two other British Central African states to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland — a loose association that placed defence and economic direction under a central government but left many domestic affairs under the control of its constituent territories.|Although prepared to grant formal independence to Southern Rhodesia now Rhodesia , the British government had adopted a policy of no independence before majority rule , dictating that colonies with a substantial population of European settlers would not receive independence except under conditions of majority rule.|After the federal break-up in , then-Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home insisted that preconditions on independence talks hinge on what he termed the "five principles" — unimpeded progress to majority rule, assurance against any future legislation decidedly detrimental to black interests, "improvement in the political status " of local Africans, moves towards ending racial discrimination , and agreement on a settlement that could be "acceptable to the whole population".|By , growing dissatisfaction with the ongoing negotiations ousted Salisbury's incumbent Winston Field , replacing him with Ian Smith , deputy chairman of the conservative Rhodesian Front party.|Emboldened by the results of this referendum and the subsequent general election, Rhodesia now threatened to assume her own sovereignty without British consent.|Harold Wilson countered by warning that such an irregular procedure would be considered treasonous , although he specifically rejected using armed force against the English "kith and kin" in Africa.|Talks quickly broke down, and final efforts in October to achieve a settlement floundered; the Rhodesian Front remained unwilling to accept what were regarded as unacceptably drastic terms and the British would settle for nothing less — it was a formula doomed to failure.|The mantle of the pioneers has fallen on our shoulders to sustain civilisation in a primitive country.|On 11 November , following a brief but solemn consensus , Rhodesia's leading statesmen issued a unilateral declaration of independence UDI.|On 12 October , the United Nations General Assembly had noted the repeated threats of the Rhodesian authorities "to declare unilaterally the independence of Southern Rhodesia, in order to perpetuate minority rule", and called upon Wilson to use all means at his disposal including military force to prevent the Rhodesian Front from asserting independence.|The UK, having already adopted extensive sanctions of its own, dispatched a Royal Navy squadron to monitor oil deliveries in the port of Beira in Mozambique, from which a strategic pipeline ran to Umtali in Rhodesia.|The warships were to deter "by force, if necessary, vessels reasonably believed to be carrying oil destined for Southern Rhodesia".|Some nations, such as Switzerland , and West Germany , which were not UN members, conducted business legally with Rhodesia — the latter remained the Smith government's largest trading partner in Western Europe until , when Bonn joined the UN.|Despite the poor showing of sanctions, Rhodesia found it nearly impossible to obtain diplomatic recognition abroad.|In , the US government had made it clear that the UDI would not be recognised "under [any] circumstances".|After Smith formally announced the UDI on the radio, Gibbs used his reserve power to dismiss Smith and his entire cabinet from office on orders from Whitehall.|However, Gibbs was unable to enact any concrete actions to foster a return to legality.|Government ministers simply ignored his notices, contending that UDI made his office obsolete.|Even so, Gibbs continued to occupy his residence in Salisbury until , when he vacated the premises and left Rhodesia following the declaration of a republic.|With few exceptions, the international community backed Whitehall's assertion that Gibbs was the Queen's only legitimate representative, and hence the only lawful authority in what it still maintained was Southern Rhodesia.|In September , the Appellate Division of the Rhodesian High Court ruled that Ian Smith's administration had become the de jure government of the country, not merely the de facto one.|Beadle argued that due to Britain's economic war against Rhodesia, she could not at the same point be described as governing Rhodesia.|A Salisbury commission chaired by prominent lawyer W.|Waley was appointed to study constitutional options open to the Rhodesian authorities as of April , but reaching a further settlement with the British was ruled out early on.|Talks aimed at easing the differences between Rhodesia and the United Kingdom were carried out aboard Royal Navy vessels once in December and again in October |During a two-proposition referendum held in , the proposal for severing all remaining ties to the British Crown passed by a majority of 61, votes to 14,|Under the new constitution, a president served as ceremonial head of state, with the prime minister nominally reporting to him.|The years following Rhodesia's UDI saw an unfolding series of economic, military, and political pressures placed on the country that eventually brought about majority rule, a totality of these factors rather than any one the reason for introducing change.|Critics of UDI sought to maintain that Ian Smith intended only to safeguard the privileges of an entrenched colonial elite at the expense of the impoverished African community.|According to this logic, UDI created a vacuum of oppression that was eventually filled by Robert Mugabe 's dictatorship.|At large, the European population's emerging attitude to UDI was tense.|Many white Rhodesians had seen themselves as nothing less than fully fledged members of the British Empire, carrying on the same rugged values and frontier spirit of the early Englishmen who had settled in |After , there were those who continued to claim that they were collectively upholders of principle and defenders of such values against the twin threats of communism, manifested through the militant black nationalists, and — ironically — the decadence of Britain herself.|Because Rhodesian exports were generally competitive and had previously been entitled to preferential treatment on the British market, the former colony did not recognise the need for escalating the pace of diversification before independence.|Following the UDI, however, Rhodesia began to demonstrate that it had the potential to develop a greater degree of economic self-sufficiency.|A rigid system of countermeasures enacted to combat sanctions succeeded in blunting their impact for at least a decade.|From until , there was virtually no further dialogue between Rhodesia and the UK.|In a referendum in , white voters approved a new constitution and the establishment of a republic, thereby severing Rhodesia's last links with the British Crown, duly declared in March |This changed immediately after the election of Edward Heath , who reopened negotiations.|In November , Douglas-Home renewed contacts with Salisbury and announced a proposed agreement that would be satisfactory to both sides — it recognised Rhodesia's constitution as the legal frame of government, while agreeing that gradual legislative representation was an acceptable formula for unhindered advance to majority rule.|Implementation of the proposed settlement hinged on popular acceptance, but the Rhodesian government consistently refused to submit it to a universal referendum.|As early as , minority rule in Southern Rhodesia was already being challenged by a rising tide of political violence led by African nationalists such as Joshua Nkomo and Ndabaningi Sithole.|After their public campaigns were initially suppressed, many believed that negotiation was completely incapable of meeting their aspirations.|Petrol bombings by radicals became increasingly common, with the Zimbabwe Review observing in , "for the first time home-made petrol bombs were used by freedom fighters in Salisbury against settler establishments.|In that same period, nationalists were implicated in arson targeting 18 schools and 10 churches.|A crisis of confidence soon resulted across ZAPU, which was already suffering from poor morale, compounded by tribal and ideological factionalism.|In , party dissidents rejected Joshua Nkomo's authority and formed their own organisation, the Zimbabwe African National Union ZANU — which worked out its own strategy for impressing international opinion, undermining white assurance, and achieving a complete breakdown of order.|By August , ZANU was banned by the Rhodesian government as well, which cited widespread intimidation by that party.|ZANU's agenda was inward-looking, leftist, and pan-Africanist in nature.|Ndabaningi Sithole and avowed Marxist Robert Mugabe, its most prominent leaders, demanded a one-party Zimbabwean state with majority rule and a public monopoly on land.|ZANU also attracted professionals, students, and feminists to its ranks.|While ZAPU theoretically continued to command the allegiance of most Ndebele and Shona activists, Sithole and Mugabe drew their support base from the rural peasantry in the Mashonaland countryside.|After the UDI, ZANU officials mapped an elaborate plan for the "liberation of Zimbabwe" which called for attacks on white farmers, destruction of cash crops, disrupting electricity in urban areas, and petrol bombings.|Sithole and Nkomo both insisted on the need for armed struggle, but disagreed on the means to go about it.|ZANLA militants preferred to politicise populations in areas which they intended to seize.|Debate on political theory and insurgent tactics became the obsession of nationalists at this stage.|They were armed with SKS carbines, hand grenades, explosives, and communist pamphlets, having been issued vague instructions to sabotage important installations before killing white persons indiscriminately.|Another seven hoped to destroy a pylon carrying electricity to Sinoia in the northwest.|Their faulty demolitions were uncovered by the Rhodesian Security Forces and the men easily tracked to a nearby ranch on 28 April, where they were shot resisting capture.|The campaign proper is generally considered to have started in with the Attack on Altena Farm , despite the minor threat already represented by the nationalist movements in the s.|After the collapse of Portuguese rule in Mozambique in —75, it was no longer viable for the Smith regime to sustain white minority rule indefinitely.|By this time, even South Africa's Vorster had come to this view.|While Vorster was unwilling to make concessions to his own country's blacks, he concluded that white minority rule was not sustainable in a country where blacks outnumbered whites |International business groups involved in the country e.|Lonrho transferred their support from the Rhodesian government to black nationalist parties.|Business leaders and politicians feted Nkomo on his visits to Europe.|ZANU also attracted business supporters who saw the course that future events were likely to take.|Until , containing the guerrillas was little more than a police action.|Even as late as August when Rhodesian government and black nationalist leaders met at Victoria Falls for negotiations brokered by South Africa and Zambia, the talks never got beyond the procedural phase.|Rhodesia now found itself almost entirely surrounded by hostile states and even South Africa, its only real ally, pressed for a settlement.|Having let slip one chance after another of reaching an accommodation with more moderate black leaders, Rhodesia's whites seem to have made the tragic choice of facing black nationalism over the barrel of a gun rather than the conference table.|The downhill road toward a race war in Rhodesia is becoming increasingly slippery with blood.|The governments of Zambia and Botswana were also emboldened sufficiently to allow resistance movement bases to be set up in their territories.|Guerrillas began to launch operations deep inside Rhodesia, attacking roads, railways, economic targets and isolated security force positions, in |The government adopted a strategic hamlets policy of the kind used in Malaya and Vietnam to restrict the influence of insurgents over the population of rural areas.|Local people were forced to relocate to protected villages PVs which were strictly controlled and guarded by the government against rebel atrocities.|The protected villages were compared by the guerrillas to concentration camps.|Some contemporary accounts claim that this interference in the lives of local residents induced many of them who had previously been neutral to support the guerrillas.|Mike Subritzky, a former NZ Army ceasefire monitor in Rhodesia, in described the war as "both bloody and brutal and brought out the very worst in the opposing combatants on all three sides.|A major problem for the Rhodesian state in fighting the Bush War was always a shortage of manpower.|However, white emigration caused a shortage of military manpower.|White emigration increased as the state called up more and more men to fight in the war, creating a vicious circle, which gradually limited the capacity of the Rhodesian state to continue the war.|Rhodesia began to lose vital economic and military support from South Africa, which, while sympathetic to the white minority government, never accorded it diplomatic recognition.|The South African government placed limits on the fuel and munitions they supplied to the Rhodesian military.|They also withdrew the personnel and equipment that they had previously provided to aid the war effort, though covert military support continued.|In , the South African government and United States governments worked together to place pressure on Smith to agree to a form of majority rule.|In response to the initiative of US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , in Ian Smith accepted the principle of black majority rule within two years.|At the time, some Rhodesians said the still embittered history between the British-dominated Rhodesia and the Afrikaner -dominated South Africa partly led the South African government to withdraw its aid to Rhodesia.|Other observers perceived South Africa's distancing itself from Rhodesia as being an early move in the process that led to majority rule in South Africa itself.|In South Africa saw settlement of the Rhodesian question as vital on several fronts: to cauterise the wound of the psychological blow … caused by her defeat in the Angolan conflict; to pre-empt possible Cuban intervention in Rhodesia and the possibility of South Africa being sucked into another Cold War regional conflict without the support and endorsement of the western powers.|In the latter s, the militants had successfully put the economy of Rhodesia under significant pressure while the numbers of guerrillas in the country were steadily increasing.|By the late s, Rhodesia's front-line forces contained about 25, regular troops and police — backed up by relatively strong army and police reserves.|The Rhodesian Air Force operated an assortment of both Canberra light bombers, Hawker Hunter fighter bombers, older de Havilland Vampire jets as well as a somewhat antiquated, but still potent, helicopter arm.|These forces, including highly trained special operations units, were capable of launching devastating raids on resistance movement camps outside the country, as in Operation Dingo in and other similar operations.|Nevertheless, guerrilla pressure inside the country itself was steadily increasing in the latter s.|By —79, the war had become a contest between the guerrilla warfare placing ever increasing pressure on the Rhodesian regime and civil population, and the Rhodesian government's strategy of trying to hold off the militants until external recognition for a compromise political settlement with moderate black leaders could be secured.|By this time, the need to cut a deal was apparent to most Rhodesians, but not to all.|Ian Smith had dismissed his intransigent Defence Minister, P.|Because, what is being presented to us here is a degree of humiliation|Van der Byl eventually retired to his country estate outside Cape Town , but there were elements in Rhodesia, mainly embittered former security force personnel, who forcibly opposed majority rule up to and well beyond the establishment of majority rule.|The work of journalists such as Lord Richard Cecil , son of the Marquess of Salisbury , stiffened the morale of Rhodesians and their overseas supporters.|The shooting down on 3 September of the civilian Vickers Viscount airliner Hunyani , Air Rhodesia Flight RH , in the Kariba area by ZIPRA fighters using a surface-to-air missile , with the subsequent massacre of its survivors, is widely considered to be the event that finally destroyed the Rhodesians' will to continue the war.|Although militarily insignificant, the loss of this aircraft and a second Viscount, the Umniati , in demonstrated the reach of resistance movements extended to Rhodesian civil society.|The Rhodesians' means to continue the war were also eroding fast.|In December , a ZANLA unit penetrated the outskirts of Salisbury and fired a volley of rockets and incendiary device rounds into the main oil storage depot — the most heavily defended economic asset in the country.|The Rhodesian army continued its "mobile counter-offensive" strategy of holding key positions "vital asset ground" while carrying out raids into the no-go areas and into neighbouring countries.|While often extraordinarily successful in inflicting heavy guerrilla casualties, such raids also on occasion failed to achieve their objectives.|In April special forces carried out a raid on Joshua Nkomo 's residence in Lusaka Zambia with the stated intention of assassinating him.|In , some special forces units were accused of using counterinsurgent operations as cover for ivory poaching and smuggling.|Colonel Reid-Daly commander of the Selous Scouts discovered that his phone was bugged and after challenging a superior officer on this issue was court martialled for insubordination.|He received the lightest sentence possible, a caution, but he continued to fight his conviction and eventually resigned his commission and left the Army.|By there were also 30 black commissioned officers in the regular army.|While there was never any suggestion of disloyalty among the soldiers from predominantly black units in particular within the Selous Scouts or the Rhodesian African Rifles — RAR , some argue that, by the time of the election, many of the RAR soldiers voted for Robert Mugabe.|As the result of an Internal Settlement signed on 3 March between the Rhodesian government and the moderate African nationalist parties, which were not in exile and not involved in the war, elections were held in April |The country's name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia.|The internal settlement left control of the country's police, security forces, civil service and judiciary in white hands, for the moment.|It assured whites of about one-third of the seats in parliament.|It was essentially a power-sharing arrangement between whites and blacks which, in the eyes of many, particularly the insurgents, did not amount to majority rule.|In spite of offers from Ian Smith, the latter parties declined to participate in an election in which their political position would be insecure and under a proposed constitution which they had played no part in drafting and which was perceived as retaining strong white minority privilege.|Bishop Muzorewa's government did not receive international recognition.|The Bush War continued unabated and sanctions were not lifted.|The international community refused to accept the validity of any agreement which did not incorporate the main nationalist parties.|The British Government then led by the recently elected Margaret Thatcher issued invitations to all parties to attend a peace conference at Lancaster House.|These negotiations took place in London in late |The three-month-long conference almost failed to reach conclusion, due to disagreements on land reform , but resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement.|The Lancaster House Agreement further provided for a ceasefire which was followed by an internationally supervised general election, held on February |The observers and Soames were accused of looking the other way, and Mugabe's victory was certified.|Nevertheless, few could doubt that Mugabe's support within his majority Shona tribal group was extremely strong.|The Rhodesian military seriously considered mounting a coup against a perceived stolen election "Operation Quartz" to prevent ZANU from taking over the country.|The plan was eventually scuttled, as it was obvious that Mugabe enjoyed widespread support from the black majority despite voter intimidation, as well as the fact that the coup would gain no external support, and a conflagration which would engulf the country was seen as inevitable.|Mugabe and nationalists who supported his rule were rather less concerned by Operation Quartz than by the possibility that there might be a mass exodus of the white community of the kind that had caused chaos in Mozambique five years earlier.|Such an exodus had been prepared for by the South African government.|With the agreement of the British Governor of Rhodesia, South African troops had entered the country to secure the road approaches to the Beit Bridge border crossing point.|Refugee camps had been prepared in the Transvaal.|On the day the election results became known, most white families had prepared contingency plans for flight, including the packing of cars and suitcases.|Mugabe promised that he would abide strictly by the terms of the Lancaster House Agreement and that changes in Zimbabwe would be made gradually and by a proper legal process.|This is widely blamed for leading to the deterioration of the Zimbabwean economy, which plagues the country today.|On 18 April the country became independent within the Commonwealth of Nations as the Republic of Zimbabwe, and its capital, Salisbury, was renamed Harare two years later.|Rhodesia is equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.|It was bordered by South Africa to the south, the Bechuanaland Protectorate later Botswana to the west and southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique to the east and northeast.|Its northwest corner was roughly 0.|Rhodesia had a tropical climate with many local variations.|The southern areas are known for their heat and aridity, parts of the central plateau receive frost in winter, the Zambezi valley is also known for its extreme heat and the Eastern Highlands usually experience cool temperatures and the highest rainfall in the country.|The country's rainy season was from late October to March and the hot climate is moderated by increasing altitude.|The country was faced with recurring droughts, and severe storms are rare.|The country was mostly savannah, although the moist and mountainous eastern highlands support areas of tropical evergreen and hardwood forests.|Trees found in these Eastern Highlands included teak , mahogany , enormous specimens of strangling fig , forest newtonia , big leaf, white stinkwood , chirinda stinkwood , knobthorn and many others.|In the low-lying parts of the country fever trees, mopane , combretum and baobabs abound.|Much of the country was covered by miombo woodland, dominated by brachystegia species and others.|Among the numerous flowers and shrubs are hibiscus , flame lily , snake lily , spider lily , leonotus , cassia , tree wisteria and dombeya.|There are around species of mammals that can be found in Rhodesia.|There are also many snakes and lizards, over bird species, and fish species.|Although Southern Rhodesia never gained full dominion status within the Commonwealth of Nations , Southern Rhodesians ruled themselves from the attainment of ' Responsible Government ' in |Its electoral register had property and education qualifications.|Over the years various electoral arrangements made at a national and municipal level upheld these standards.|For example, the franchise for the first Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council election in contained the following requirement:.|Six months' continuous residence was also required for qualifications b and c.|Following Cecil Rhodes 's dictum of "equal rights for all civilised men", there was no overt racial component to the franchise.|However, the requirement excluded a majority of native blacks from the electorate.|Up until the s, Southern Rhodesia had a vibrant political life with right and left wing parties competing for power.|The Rhodesian Labour Party held seats in the Assembly and in municipal councils throughout the s and s.|From to , the prime minister was Garfield Todd , a liberal who did much to promote the development of the Black community through investment in education, housing and healthcare.|However, the government forced Todd from office because his proposed reforms were seen by many whites as too radical.|From onwards, white settler politics consolidated and ossified around resistance to majority rule, setting the stage for UDI.|The Constitution governed Southern Rhodesia and independent Rhodesia up until , using the Westminster Parliamentary System modified by a system of separate voter rolls with differing property and education qualifications, without regard to race.|Whites ended up with the majority of Assembly seats.|The republican constitution established a bicameral Parliament consisting of an indirectly elected Senate and a directly elected House of Assembly , effectively reserving the majority of seats for whites.|The office of President had only ceremonial significance with the Prime Minister holding executive power.|The Constitution of the short-lived Zimbabwe Rhodesia , which saw a black-led government elected for the first time, reserved 28 of the parliamentary seats for whites.|The independence constitution agreed at Lancaster House watered those provisions down and reserved 20 out of seats for whites in the House of Assembly and 8 out of 40 seats in the Senate.|The constitution prohibited Zimbabwe authorities from altering the Constitution for seven years without unanimous consent and required a three-quarters vote in Parliament for a further three years.|The government amended the Constitution in to abolish the seats reserved for whites, and replace the office of Prime Minister with an executive President.|In , the government abolished the Senate.|Southern Rhodesia had long been distinctive among British dependencies in that it had financed and developed its own security forces and command structure.|It would mean a bloody war, and probably a bloody war turning into a bloody civil war.|For much of its history Rhodesia had a small professional standing army of 3, troops, about a third of whom were black volunteers.|As a result of the escalating rural insurgency, the Rhodesian Security Forces began to depend more heavily on white conscripts and reservists of the Territorial Force and Territorial reserves.|All male Rhodesian citizens aged eighteen to twenty-three, except blacks, were obligated to fulfill four and a half months later extended to nine months of full-time national service.|From to the Rhodesian government made several attempts to weaponise chemical and biological agents.|The chemical agents most used in the Rhodesian chemical and biological warfare CBW programme were parathion an organophosphate insecticide and thallium a heavy metal commonly found in rodenticide.|They also looked at using Rickettsia prowazekii causative agent of epidemic typhus , and Salmonella typhi causative agent of typhoid fever , and toxins such as ricin and botulinum toxin.|Biological agents, namely Vibrio cholerae causative agent of cholera , had some impact on the fighting capability of ZANLA.|Economically, Southern Rhodesia developed an economy that was narrowly based on the production of a few primary products, notably, chromium and tobacco.|It was therefore vulnerable to the economic cycle.|The deep recession of the s gave way to a post-war boom.|This boom prompted the immigration of about , whites between and , taking the white population up to ,|A large number of these immigrants were of British working-class origin, with others coming from the Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, and later Angola and Mozambique.|They established a relatively balanced economy, transforming what was once a primary producer dependent on backwoods farming into an industrial giant which spawned a strong manufacturing sector, iron and steel industries, and modern mining ventures.|These economic successes owed little to foreign aid apart from the immigration of skilled labour.|The economy of the state of Rhodesia sustained international sanctions for a decade following the declaration of its independence, a resistance which waned as more southern African states declared independence and majority rule as well as the destruction of the Rhodesian Bush War.|A central feature of the white community in Rhodesia was its transience, as white settlers were just as likely to leave Rhodesia after a few years as permanently settle; for example, of the British settlers who were the first white settlers, arriving in , only 15 were still living in Rhodesia in |The population of Rhodesia boomed during the late s due to immigration and an exceptional rate of natural increase among its black citizens, the highest in sub-Saharan Africa at the time.|Rhodesia was a predominantly Christian country.|Throughout the period of its Unilateral Declaration of Independence to , Rhodesia pursued a foreign policy of attempting to secure recognition as an independent country, and insisting that its political system would include 'gradual steps to majority rule.|Rhodesia wished to retain its economic prosperity and also feared communist elements in the rebel forces, and thus felt their policy of a gradual progression to black majority rule was justified.|However, the international community refused to accept this rationale, believing that their policies were perpetuating racism.|This attitude was part of the larger decolonisation context, during which Western powers such as the United Kingdom, France, and Belgium hastened to grant independence to their colonies in Africa.|Rhodesia was originally a British colony.|Although decolonisation in Africa had begun after World War II, it began accelerating in the early s, causing Britain to negotiate independence rapidly with several of its colonies.|The governing white minority of Rhodesia, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy and its implications.|On 11 November , Rhodesia's minority white government made a unilateral declaration of independence UDI from the United Kingdom, as it became apparent that negotiations would not lead to independence under the white regime.|The United Kingdom government immediately brought in legislation Southern Rhodesia Act which formally abolished all Rhodesian government institutions.|This move made life difficult for Rhodesian citizens who wished to travel internationally as passports issued by Rhodesia's UDI administration were not recognised as valid; [] in January , the British issued a statement accepting as valid any passport issued before the declaration of independence and allowing six-month United Kingdom passports to be granted when they expired — provided that the bearer declared they did not intend to aid the UDI Rhodesian government.|Until late , Rhodesia still recognised Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, even though it opposed the British government itself for hindering its goals of independence.|The Queen, however, refused to accept the title Queen of Rhodesia.|Eventually, the Smith government abandoned attempts to remain loyal to the British Crown, and in , a majority of the electorate voted in referendum to declare Rhodesia a republic.|They hoped that this move would facilitate recognition as an independent state by the international community, but the issues of white minority control remained and hindered this effort, and like the UDI before it, the proclamation of a republic lacked international recognition.|After the declaration of independence, and indeed for the entire duration of its existence, Rhodesia did not receive official recognition from any state, although it did maintain diplomatic relations with South Africa, which was then under apartheid.|South Africa did not recognise Rhodesia to preserve its fragile positions with other nations, but frequently assisted the Rhodesian state.|Portugal maintained informal relations until the Carnation Revolution of |The Security Council also imposed selective mandatory economic sanctions, which were later made comprehensive.|Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November was promptly condemned by the international community.|The United Nations Security Council Resolution of 12 November called "upon all States not to recognise this illegal racist minority regime in Southern Rhodesia.|Rhodesia campaigned for international acceptance and invoked the doctrine of non-intervention in internal affairs as justification for rebuking external criticism of its internal policies.|However, the emerging doctrine of self-determination in colonial situations meant that most nations regarded Rhodesia's self-declared independence as illegitimate.|Zambia , formerly Northern Rhodesia , took a pragmatic approach towards Rhodesia.|Kenneth Kaunda , heavily dependent on access through Rhodesia for his nation's copper ore exports, fuel, and power imports unofficially worked with the Rhodesian government.|Rhodesia still allowed Zambia to export and import its goods through its territory to Mozambique ports, despite the Zambian government's official policy of hostility and non-recognition of the post-UDI Smith Administration.|The United States, like all other Western nations, refused to recognise Rhodesia, but unlike others allowed its Consulate-General to function as a communications conduit between the US government in Washington, DC and the Rhodesian government in Salisbury.|The US government responded by saying the Rhodesian mission and its staff had no official diplomatic status and violated no US laws.|Portugal pursued a middle path with Rhodesia.|The Portuguese government in power at that time, authoritarian and ardently anti-communist, gave active behind-the-scenes support in Rhodesia's fight against the guerrilla groups.|These states wanted South Africa to pressure Ian Smith to accept a faster transition to majority rule in Rhodesia, in return for pledges of non-interference in South Africa's internal affairs.|Prime Minister John Vorster , believing majority rule in Rhodesia would lead to international acceptance for South Africa, used a number of tactics to pressure Smith.|The South African government held up shipments of fuel and ammunition and pulled out friendly South African forces from Rhodesia.|The combined loss of Mozambique and the loss of support from South Africa dealt critical blows to the Rhodesian government.|The High Commission in London, known as Rhodesia House , continued to function until it was closed in following the decision by white Rhodesians in a referendum to make the country a republic, along with the "British Residual Mission" in Salisbury.|In Australia , the federal government in Canberra sought to close the Rhodesian Information Centre in Sydney , [] but it remained open, operating under the jurisdiction of the state of New South Wales.|Similarly, the United States recalled its consul-general from Salisbury , and reduced consular staff, [] but did not move to close its consulate until the declaration of a republic in |The South African Diplomatic Mission in Salisbury became the only such mission remaining in the country after , [] when Portugal downgraded its mission to consul level, [] having recalled its consul-general in Salisbury in May |Continuing civil war and a lack of international support eventually led the Rhodesian government to submit to an agreement with the UK in |This led to internationally supervised elections, won by Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front and Robert Mugabe, establishing the internationally recognised Zimbabwe.|Politically within Zimbabwe, the consolidation of power by Robert Mugabe continued through the s.|Following amendments to the country's constitution in , parliamentary seats reserved for whites were abolished, and an executive presidency was created, held by Mugabe.|Many expatriates and some of the whites who stayed in Zimbabwe became deeply nostalgic for Rhodesia.|These individuals are known as " Rhodies.|While as Rhodesia, the country was once considered the breadbasket of Africa.|Today, Zimbabwe is a net importer of foodstuffs, with the European Union and United States providing emergency food relief as humanitarian aid on a regular basis.|Recently the agriculture sector has started to do well since the availability of expertise and machines has improved supported mainly by China.|Zimbabwe also suffered from a crippling inflation rate, as the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe had a policy of printing money to satisfy government debt.|Monetary aid by the International Monetary Fund was suspended due to the Zimbabwe government's defaulting on past loans, its inability to stabilise its own economy, its inability to stem corruption and its failure to advance human rights.|In February , a power-sharing accord was reached which resulted in the Zimbabwe Government of National Unity of |The accord was, essentially, to create the position of "Prime Minister" for Tsvangirai, who served in that role from to |Mugabe retained the title of President.|Since Rhodesia was a former colony of the United Kingdom, all of the sports that were born in the United Kingdom enjoyed considerable popularity in Rhodesia; especially cricket , rugby , football , netball , golf , tennis , lawn bowls , field hockey , etc.|Just like neighbouring South Africa, Rhodesia was barred from both competing against and participating with Commonwealth member countries.|From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.|This article is about the unrecognised state of Rhodesia.|For the British colony, see Southern Rhodesia.|For other uses, see Rhodesia disambiguation.|Flag —|Coat of arms.|English official [1] Shona Ndebele Afrikaans.|Rhodesian pound Rhodesian dollar |The highest official of Rhodesia held the title "Officer Administering the Government" OAtG as he acted in lieu of the official Governor, who remained at his post but was ignored.|Main article: History of Rhodesia.|Part of a series on the.|Lancaster House Agreement.|Main article: Rhodesian Bush War.|The geographical situation in left, on UDI and right, after the independence of Mozambique and Angola from Portugal.|Green: Rhodesia; purple: friendly nations; orange: hostile states; grey: neutral countries.|Main article: Climate of Zimbabwe.|Main article: Wildlife of Zimbabwe.|Constitutional history.|General |Political parties.|Foreign relations.|National symbols.|Flag other flags Anthem.|Other countries Atlas.|Main article: Politics of Rhodesia.|Main article: Rhodesian Security Forces.|Main article: Rhodesia and weapons of mass destruction.|Main article: Economic history of Zimbabwe.|Main article: Languages of Zimbabwe.|Main article: Religion in Zimbabwe.|This section needs additional citations for verification.|Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.|Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.|The Chambers Dictionary.|Allied Publishers.|Ian Douglas Smith.|Salisbury: M.|Oxford: Clarendon Press.|Archived from the original on 26 August |Retrieved 9 October |Archived from the original on 9 October |Archived from the original on 24 June |Archived from the original on 15 January |Archived from the original on 6 July |Archived from the original on 10 May |The Economy of British Central Africa.|Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.|Archived from the original on 12 May |The African File.|Archived from the original on 16 July |Archived from the original on 24 December |Archived from the original on 3 June |Archived from the original on 12 October |Archived from the original on 2 October |Archived from the original on 23 August |The Great Betrayal.|London: Blake Publishing Ltd.|Archived PDF from the original on 12 September |Archived from the original on 26 December |Archived from the original on 16 April |Archived from the original on 23 November |The New York Times.|Archived from the original on 13 June |Archived from the original on 9 August |South African History Online".|Archived from the original on 13 August |Archived from the original on 18 May |Archived from the original on 1 March |Archived from the original on 17 October |Archived from the original on 9 March |Last Defenders of the Laager: Ian D.|Smith and F.|Becoming Zimbabwe: A History from the pre-colonial period to |We are everywhere: Narratives from Rhodesian guerillas.|Archived from the original on 20 May |Archived from the original on 25 December |United Nations.|Archived from the original on 18 March |Retrieved 17 March |Archived from the original on 9 May |Archived PDF from the original on 10 November |Archived from the original on 1 June |The Past is Another Country.|BBC News.|Archived from the original on 7 March |Retrieved 10 November |Grundy; Kenneth William Grundy |University of California Press.|Archived PDF from the original on 20 April |International Law Reports Volume |Archived PDF from the original on 5 June |Retrieved 30 September |Archived from the original on 27 May |Foreign Affairs.|Archived from the original on 5 April |South African Institute of International Affairs.|Archived from the original PDF on 17 April |Archived from the original on 18 November |Retrieved 16 February |Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since |Sue Onslow.|Archived from the original on 13 October |The Herald.|Archived from the original on 20 March |Cato Institute.|Retrieved 13 October |American Committee on Africa.|A History of Zimbabwe, — and Postscript, Zimbabwe, —|Archived from the original on 15 December |International Institute for Strategic Studies.|Archived from the original on 25 May |Crisis in Rhodesia.|Archived from the original on 4 March |Archived from the original on 31 May |BBC news.|Retrieved 27 November |Retrieved 23 November |TIME magazine.|NZ History.|Archived from the original on 23 October |Archived from the original on 15 June |Retrieved 8 June |Archived from the original on 2 November |Retrieved 13 January |Archived PDF from the original on 1 January |Retrieved 5 February |Retrieved 20 June |Continent in the Balance: Zimbabwe-Juvenile literature.|Wars in the Third World Since |Philadelphia: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.|Malkasian, Carter; Marston, Daniel eds.|Counterinsurgency in Modern Warfare.|Oxford: Osprey Publishing.|Kent: Grange Books.|London: Springer Nature.|An Introduction to the History of Central Africa 2nd ed.|Durban: Oxford University Press.|Appendix IV.|Archived from the original on 26 October |Retrieved 19 June |Archived from the original on 25 July |Retrieved 5 January |Retrieved 26 May |Archived from the original on 13 May |Retrieved 20 September |Archived from the original on 10 February |Oil Sanction Violations".|The Washington Post.|Archived from the original on 11 June |Strack |Sanctions: The Case of Rhodesia.|Syracuse University Press.|Ministry of Information, Immigration, and Tourism |Report of the Secretary for Information, Immigration, and Tourism.|Ministry of Information, Immigration, and Tourism.|International Diplomacy and Colonial Retreat.|Isolated States: A Comparative Analysis.|Cambridge University Press.|Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.|Federation Press.|University of Chicago Press.|Mitchell |Native Vs.|Greenwood Publishing Group.|Retrieved 15 April |Bittner |Broadcasting: An Introduction.|Prentice-Hall International.|The Valiant years.|Galaxie Press.|Archived from the original on 7 November |This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines.|Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references.|October Learn how and when to remove this template message.|Rhodesia at Wikipedia's sister projects.|List of Rhodesians Public holidays Rhodesiana.|Afrikaners British Greeks Jews " Rhodies ".|Coloureds Goffals Indians.|Commonwealth realms and dominions.|Declared itself a republic in |Categories : Rhodesia British colonisation in Africa British Empire Former British colonies and protectorates in Africa Former countries in Africa Former polities of the Cold War Former republics Former administrative territorial entities in Africa Former unrecognized countries History of Rhodesia History of Zimbabwe States and territories established in States and territories disestablished in establishments in Africa disestablishments in Africa establishments in Rhodesia s disestablishments in Rhodesia establishments in the British Empire disestablishments in the United Kingdom White supremacy in Africa English-speaking countries and territories Zimbabwe and the Commonwealth of Nations.|Namespaces Article Talk.|Views Read Edit View history.|In other projects Wikimedia Commons.|By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.|Flag — Coat of arms.|Unrecognised state.|Parliamentary constitutional monarchy —70 Parliamentary republic —|Elizabeth II.|Henry Everard acting.|Cold War and Decolonisation of Africa.|Preceded by.|Southern Rhodesia.|Zimbabwe Rhodesia.|Ancient history Leopard's Kopje.|Mapungubwe Kingdom.|Zimbabwe Kingdom.|Mutapa Kingdom.|White settlement pre Rozwi Empire.|Rudd Concession.|BSA Company rule.|First Matabele War.|Second Matabele War.|World War I involvement.|Colony of Southern Rhodesia.|World War II involvement.|Malayan Emergency involvement.|Federation with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland.|Rhodesian Bush War.|Rhodesia under UDI.|British Dependency.|Second Congo War.|Elections General Legislative Council Referendums |National symbols Flag other flags Anthem.
  6. What appeared to be a crass cash grab by Hansa/BMG to milk Japan’s first three albums to capitalize on the band’s post fame (on Virgin) was really a worthy roundup of the band’s early glam and androgynous (yet weirdly sexless) white-boy soul.

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