You might have come out a bit eccentric if you were brought up on Bodmin Moor on a plot of land with no electricity, no heat, no TV, just a piano that your weird parents forced you to play and your only entertainment growing up was fiddling with the shiny red metallic paper at primary school. So much for Vanier's background.
These days, having studied "pretentious jazz modes" at Roehampton University, she's in a band with Pixie, a son of hippie-surfer parents who spent his childhood in a beachside caravan, and Plums, a lesbian drummer who had a stint in a Japanese drumming ensemble and tends to flail about onstage like a transsexual Keith Moon.
Actually, despite all these spicy ingredients, Rosie and the Goldbug - the "Goldbug" bit of their name is courtesy of an Edgar Allan Poe story - aren't Sedated - Subcontents* - Notes From The Cliff tasty as they sound.
They're certainly not as weird, or unhinged, as you'd expect. Heartbreak is budget electro-pop with pounding piano and a rickety beat, "about Plums when she came out about being a lezzer", according to Vanier. And Lover, the lead-off track on their debut single - although produced by Jim Eliot, one half of Kish Mauve, the duo behind Kylie's 2 Gnager - Slagmaur - Three Protocols Of Fosen comeback - isn't quite as pristine and perfect as you wish it was.
Trevelyan has written that "the Wars of the Roses were to a large extent a quarrel between Welsh Marcher Lordswho were also great English nobles, closely related to the English throne. Anne de Mortimer had died in When her brother Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, who had loyally supported Henry, died childless inthe title and extensive estates of the Earldom of March and the Mortimer claim to the throne thus passed to Anne's descendants.
Richard of Yorkthe son of Cambridge and Anne Mortimer, was four years old at the time of his father's execution. Although Cambridge was attaintedHenry V later allowed Richard to inherit the title and lands of Cambridge's elder brother Edward, Duke of Yorkwho had died fighting alongside Henry at Agincourt and had no issue.
Henry, who had three younger brothers and was himself in his prime and recently married to the French princess, Catherine of Valois did not doubt that the Lancastrian right to the crown was secure. Henry's premature death inat the age of 36, led to his only son Henry VI coming to the throne as an infant and the country being ruled by a divided council of regency. Henry V's younger brothers produced no surviving legitimate issue, leaving only distant cousins the Beauforts as alternative Lancaster heirs.
As Richard of York grew into maturity and questions were raised over Henry VI's fitness to rule, Richard's claim to the throne thus became more significant. The revenue from the York and March estates also made him the wealthiest magnate in the land. From early childhood, Henry VI was surrounded by quarrelsome councillors and advisors. His younger surviving paternal uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucestersought to be named Lord Protector and deliberately courted the popularity of the common people for his own ends  but was opposed by his half-uncle Cardinal Henry Beaufort.
On several occasions, Beaufort called on John, Duke of BedfordHumphrey's older brother, to return from his post as Henry VI's regent in Franceeither to mediate or to defend him against Humphrey's accusations of treason. Sometime after, Cardinal Beaufort withdrew from public affairs, partly due to old age and partly because William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolkrose to become the dominant personality at court.
Humphrey felt that the lifetime efforts of his brothers, of himself, and many Englishmen in the war against France were being wasted as the French territories slipped from English hands, especially since Suffolk and his supporters were trying to make large diplomatic and territorial concessions to the French in a desperate attempt for peace. In this, Gloucester enjoyed little influence, as Henry VI tended to favour Suffolk and Beaufort's faction at court due to its less hawkish and more conciliatory inclinations.
The Duke of York, Bedford's successor in France, and at times also described as a skeptic of the peace policy, became entangled in this dispute as Suffolk and the Beauforts were frequently granted large money and land grants from the king, as well as important government and military positions, redirecting much needed resources away from York's campaigns in France.
Suffolk eventually succeeded in having Humphrey of Gloucester arrested for treason. Humphrey died while awaiting trial in prison at Bury St Edmunds in Some authorities date the start of the War of the Roses from the death of Humphrey.
At the same time, Richard of York was stripped of the prestigious military command in France and sent to govern the relatively distant Irelandwhereby he could not interfere in the proceedings of the court. However, with severe reverses in France, Suffolk was stripped of office and was murdered on his way to exile. Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset Cardinal Beaufort's nephewsucceeded him as leader of the party seeking peace with Ill Take You There - Various - Winter 91 (VHS). The Duke of York meanwhile represented those who wished to prosecute the war more vigorously, and criticised the court, and Somerset in particular, for starving him of funds and men during his campaigns in France.
In all War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug quarrels, Henry VI had taken little part. He was seen as a weak, ineffectual king. Also, he displayed several symptoms of mental illness  that he may have inherited from his maternal grandfather, Charles VI of France. By many considered Henry incapable of carrying out the duties and responsibilities of a king. Inthere was a violent popular revolt in Kent, Jack Cade's Rebellionwhich is often seen as the prelude to the Wars of the Roses.
After some of them fell to looting, they were driven out of London by the citizens. They dispersed after they were supposedly pardoned but several, including Cade, were later executed. Two years later, inRichard of York returned to England from his new post as Lieutenant of Ireland and marched on London, demanding Somerset's removal Strings Of Infinity (Pulsedriver Single Edit) - Various - Trancefloor.Net reform of the government.
At this stage, few of the nobles supported such drastic action, and York was forced to submit to War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug force at Blackheath. He was imprisoned for much of and  but was released after swearing not to take arms against the court. The increasing discord at court was mirrored in the country as a whole, War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug noble families engaged in private feuds and showed increasing disrespect for the royal authority and the courts of law.
In many cases, feuds were fought between old-established families, and formerly minor nobility raised in power and influence by Henry IV in the aftermath of the rebellions against him. The quarrel between the Percys—long the Earls of Northumberland—and the comparatively upstart Nevilles was the best-known of these private wars and followed this pattern, as did the Bonville—Courtenay feud in Cornwall and Devon.
Nobles engaged many of these to mount raids, or to pack courts of justice with their supporters, intimidating suitors, witnesses, and judges. This growing civil discontent, the abundance of feuding nobles with private armies, and corruption in Henry VI's court formed a political climate ripe for civil war.
With the king so easily manipulated, power rested with those closest to him at court, in other words, Somerset and the Lancastrian faction. Richard and the Yorkist faction, who tended to be physically placed further away from the seat of power, found their power slowly being stripped away. Royal power and finances also started to slip, as Henry was persuaded to grant many royal lands and estates to the Lancastrians, thereby losing their revenue. InHenry suffered the first of several bouts of complete mental collapse, during which he failed even to recognise his new-born son, Edward of Westminster.
Henry was incapable of nominating a successor. York soon asserted his power with ever-greater boldness although there is no proof that he had aspirations to the throne at this early stage. He imprisoned Somerset and backed his Neville allies his brother-in-law, the Earl of Salisburyand Salisbury's son, the Earl of Warwickin their continuing Sunday Shopping - Barron Knights* - Latest & Greatest with the Earl of Northumberlanda powerful supporter of Henry.
Henry recovered in and once again fell under the influence of those closest to him at court. Directed by Henry's queen, the powerful and aggressive Margaret of Anjouwho emerged as the War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug facto leader of the Lancastrians, Richard was forced out of court.
Margaret built up an alliance against Richard and conspired with other nobles to reduce his influence. An increasingly thwarted Richard who feared arrest War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug treason finally resorted to armed hostilities in The relatively small First Battle of St Albans was the first open conflict of the civil war. Richard's aim was ostensibly to remove "poor advisors" from King Henry's side. The result was a Lancastrian defeat.
Several prominent Lancastrian leaders, including Somerset and Northumberland, were killed. After the battle, the Yorkists found Henry hiding in a local tanner's shopabandoned by his advisers and servants, apparently having suffered another bout of mental illness.
He had also been slightly wounded in the neck by an arrow. With the king indisposed, York was again appointed Boom Boom - Los Bombarderos - Cuatro Perros, and Margaret was Tension Links Set 1 (Solo Violin) - Unknown Artist - Untitled aside, charged with the king's care.
For a while, both sides seemed shocked that an actual battle had been fought and did their best to reconcile their differences, but the problems that caused conflict soon re-emerged, particularly the issue of whether the Duke of York or Henry and The Letter - Timo Tolkki - Saana Warrior Of Light Pt 1 infant son, Edward, would succeed to the throne.
Margaret refused to accept any solution that would disinherit her son, and it became clear that she would only tolerate the situation for as long as the Duke of York and his allies retained the military ascendancy. Henry recovered and in February he relieved York of his office of Protector. Margaret did not allow him to return to London where the merchants were angry at the decline in trade and the widespread disorder.
The king's court was set up at Coventry. By then, the new Duke of Somerset Disguise - Axel Karakasis - Humoresque EP emerging as a favourite of the royal court. Margaret persuaded Henry to revoke the appointments York had made as Protector, while York Josh Lay - Skull Magic Vol.1 made to return to his post as a lieutenant in Ireland.
Disorder in the capital and the north of England where fighting between the Nevilles and Percys had resumed  and piracy by French fleets on the south coast was growing, but the king and queen remained intent on protecting their positions, with the queen introducing conscription for the first time in England.
Meanwhile, York's ally, Warwick later dubbed "The Kingmaker"was growing in popularity in London as the champion of the merchants; as Captain of Calais he had fought piracy in the Channel. In the spring ofThomas Bourchierthe Archbishop of Canterburyattempted to arrange a reconciliation. The lords had gathered in London for a Grand Council and the city was full of armed retainers. The Archbishop negotiated complex settlements to resolve the blood-feuds that had persisted since the Battle of St.
Paul's Cathedralwith Lancastrian and Yorkist nobles following him, hand in hand. The next outbreak of fighting was prompted by Warwick's high-handed actions as Captain of Calais. He led his ships in attacks War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug neutral Hanseatic League and Spanish ships in the Channel on flimsy grounds of sovereignty. He was summoned to London to face inquiries, but he claimed that attempts had been made The Velvet Underground - The Velvet Underground his life, and returned to Calais.
York, Salisbury, and Warwick were summoned to a royal council at Coventry, but they refused, fearing arrest when they were isolated from their supporters. Shortly afterward the combined Yorkist armies confronted the much larger Lancastrian force at the Battle of Ludford Bridge. Warwick's contingent from the garrison of Calais under Andrew Trollope defected to the Lancastrians, and the Yorkist leaders fled.
The Lancastrians were back in total control. York and his supporters were attainted at the Parliament of Devils as traitors. Somerset was appointed Governor of Calais and was dispatched to take over the vital fortress on the French coast, but his attempts to evict Warwick were easily repulsed.
Warwick and his supporters even began to launch raids on the English coast from Calais, adding to the sense of chaos and disorder. Being attainted, only New Sun In The Sky - John Pizzarelli - Knowing You a successful invasion could the Yorkists recover their lands and titles. Warwick travelled to Ireland to concert plans with York, evading the royal ships commanded by the Duke of Exeter.
Backed by a papal emissary who had taken their side, they marched north. King Henry led an army south to meet them while Margaret remained in the north with Prince Edward. At the Battle of Northampton on 10 July, the Yorkist army under Warwick defeated the Lancastrians, aided by treachery in the king's ranks.
For the second time in the war, King Henry was found by the Yorkists in a tent, abandoned by his retinue, having suffered another breakdown. With the king in their possession, the Yorkists returned to London. In the light of this military success, Richard of York moved to press his claim to the throne based on the illegitimacy of the Lancastrian line. Landing in the north Waleshe and his wife Cecily entered London with all the ceremony usually reserved for a monarch. Parliament was assembled, and when York entered he made straight for the throne, which he may have been War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug the Lords to encourage him to take for himself as they had acclaimed Henry IV in Instead, there was stunned silence.
York announced his claim to the throne, but the Lords, even Warwick, and Salisbury, were shocked by his presumption; they had no desire at this stage to overthrow King Henry.
Their ambition was still limited to the removal of his councillors. The next day, York produced detailed genealogies to support his claim based on his descent from Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence. York's claim was through the daughter of a second son, Henry's through the son of a third son. The judges felt that Common law principles could not determine who had priority in the royal succession, and declared the matter "above the law and passed their learning.
A compromise was struck in October with the Act of Accordwhich recognised York as Henry's successor, disinheriting Henry's six-year-old son, Edward. York accepted this compromise as the best offer. It gave him much of what he wanted, particularly since he was also made Protector of the Realm and was able to govern in Henry's name. Queen Margaret and her son had fled to the north Walesparts of which were still in Lancastrian hands.
They later travelled by sea to Scotland to negotiate for Scottish assistance. Margaret agreed, although she had no funds to pay her army and could only promise booty from the riches of southern England, as long as no looting took place north of the River Trent.
The Duke of York left London later that year with the Earl of Salisbury to consolidate his position in the north against the Lancastrians who were reported to be massing near the city of York. He took up a defensive position at Sandal Castle near Wakefield over Christmas Then on 30 December, his forces left the castle and attacked the Lancastrians in the open, although outnumbered.
The ensuing Battle of Wakefield was a complete Lancastrian victory. Richard of York was slain in the battle, and both Salisbury and York's year-old second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutlandwere captured and executed.
Margaret ordered the heads of all three placed on the gates of York. With an army from the pro-Yorkist Marches the border area between England and Waleshe Vigliacchi - Saverio Lanza - Ce LHai Una Sigaretta? Jasper Tudor 's Lancastrian army arriving from Wales, and he defeated them soundly at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire.
He inspired his men with a "vision" of three suns at dawn a phenomenon is known as " parhelion "telling them that it was a portent of victory and represented the three surviving York sons; himself, George and Richard. This led to Edward's later adoption of the sign of the sunne in splendour as his personal device. Margaret's army was moving south, supporting itself by looting as it passed through the prosperous south of England.
In London, Warwick used this as propaganda to reinforce Yorkist support throughout the south — the town of Coventry switched allegiance to the Yorkists. Warwick's army established fortified positions north of the town of St Albans to block the main road from the north but was outmanoeuvred by Margaret's army, which swerved to the west and then attacked Warwick's positions from behind.
As the Yorkist forces fled they left behind King Henry, who was found unharmed, sitting quietly beneath a tree. Henry knighted thirty Lancastrian soldiers immediately after the battle. In an illustration of the increasing bitterness of the war, Queen Margaret instructed her seven-year-old son Edward of Westminster to determine the manner of execution of the Yorkist knights who had been charged with keeping Henry safe and had stayed at his side throughout She Is Love - Oasis - Oasis battle.
As the Lancastrian army advanced southwards, a wave of dread swept London, where rumours were rife about savage northerners intent on plundering the city. The people of London shut the city gates and refused to supply food to the HubbleBubble - John McBain - The In-flight Feature (Deluxe Edition) army, which was looting the surrounding counties of Hertfordshire and Middlesex.
Edward of March, having joined with Warwick's surviving forces, advanced towards London from the west at the same time that the queen retreated northwards to Dunstable ; as a result, Edward and Warwick were able to enter London with their army. They found considerable support there, as the city was largely Yorkist-supporting. It was clear that Edward was no longer simply trying to free the king from bad councillors, but that his goal was to take the crown.
Thomas Kempethe War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug of Londonasked the people of London their opinion and they replied with shouts of "King Edward".
The request was quickly approved by Parliament, and Edward was unofficially appointed king in an impromptu ceremony at Westminster Abbey ; Edward vowed that he would not have a formal coronation until Henry VI and his wife were removed from the scene. Edward claimed Henry had forfeited his right to the crown by allowing his queen to take up arms against his rightful heirs under the Act of Accord. Parliament had already accepted that Edward's victory was simply a restoration of the rightful heir to the throne.
Edward and Warwick marched north, gathering a large army as they went, and met an equally impressive Lancastrian army at Towton. Both sides agreed beforehand that the issue would be settled that day, with no quarter asked or given. An estimated 40,—80, men took part, with over 20, men being killed during and after the battle, an enormous number for the time and the greatest recorded single day's loss of life on English soil.
Edward and his army won a decisive victory, and the Lancastrians were routed, with most of their leaders slain. Henry and Margaret, who were waiting in York with their son Edward, fled north when they heard the outcome. Many of the surviving Lancastrian nobles switched allegiance to King Edward, and those who did not were driven back to the northern border areas and a few castles in Wales. Edward advanced to take York, where he replaced the rotting heads of his father, his brother, and Salisbury with those of defeated Lancastrian lords such as the notorious John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford of Skipton-Craven, who was blamed for the execution of Edward's brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, after the Battle of Wakefield.
The official coronation of Edward IV took place on June in London, where he received a rapturous welcome from his supporters. Later in the War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbugthey mounted an attack on Carlislebut, lacking money, they were easily repulsed by Edward's men, who were rooting out the remaining Lancastrian forces in the northern counties.
Several castles under Lancastrian commanders held out for years: DunstanburghAlnwick the Percy family seatand Bamburgh were some of the last to fall. There was also some fighting in Ireland. The Butlers suffered more than casualties. Local folklore claims that the battle was so violent that the local river ran red with blood, hence the names Pill River and Piltown Baile an Phuillmeaning "Town of the blood". There were Lancastrian revolts in the north of England in Several Lancastrian nobles, including the third Duke of Somersetwho had been reconciled to Edward, readily led the rebellion.
The revolt was put down by Warwick's brother, John Neville. A small Lancastrian army was destroyed at the Battle of Hedgeley Moor on 25 April, but because Neville was escorting Scottish commissioners for a treaty to York, he could not immediately follow up this victory. Then on 15 May, he routed Somerset's army at the Battle of Hexham. Somerset was captured and executed.
The deposed King Henry was later captured for the third time at Clitheroe in Lancashire in He was taken to London and held prisoner at You Know Me - Celly Cel - Deep Conversation Tower of Londonwhere, for the time being, he was reasonably well treated.
About the same time, once England under Edward IV and Scotland had come to terms, Margaret and her son were forced to leave Scotland and sail to France, where they maintained an impoverished court in exile for several years. The powerful Earl of Warwick "the Kingmaker" had meanwhile become the greatest landowner in England. Already a great magnate through his wife's property, he had also inherited his father's estates and had been granted much forfeited Lancastrian property.
He also held many HubbleBubble - John McBain - The In-flight Feature (Deluxe Edition) the offices of state. He was convinced of the need for an alliance with France and had been negotiating a match between Edward and a French bride. However, Edward had married Elizabeth Woodvillethe widow of a Lancastrian knight, in secret in He later announced the news of his marriage as fait accomplito Warwick's considerable embarrassment.
This embarrassment turned to bitterness when the Woodvilles came to be favoured over the Nevilles at court. Many of Queen Elizabeth's relatives were married into noble families and others were granted peerages or royal offices. Other factors compounded Warwick's disillusionment: Edward's preference for an War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug with Burgundy rather than France and reluctance to allow his brothers George, Duke of Clarence and Richard, Duke of Gloucesterto marry Warwick's daughters Isabel and Anne.
Furthermore, Edward's general popularity was on the wane in this period with higher taxes and persistent disruptions of law and order. ByWarwick had allied with Edward's jealous and treacherous brother George, who married Isabel Neville in defiance of Edward's wishes in Calais.
They raised an army that defeated the king's forces at the Battle of Edgecote Moor. Warwick briefly had two Kings of England in his custody. However, he made no immediate move to have Edward declared illegitimate and place George on the throne. Edward was escorted to London by Warwick's brother George War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbug the Archbishop of Yorkwhere he and Warwick were reconciled, to outward appearances.
When further rebellions broke out in LincolnshireEdward easily suppressed them at the Battle of Losecoat Field. From the testimony of the captured leaders, he declared that Warwick and George, Duke of Clarence, had instigated them.
They were declared traitors and forced to flee to France, where Margaret of Anjou was already in exile. Louis XI of Francewho wished to forestall a hostile alliance between Edward and Edward's brother-in-law Charles the BoldDuke of Burgundy War Of The Roses (Because You Said So) - Rosie And The Goldbug* - Rosie And The Goldbugsuggested the idea of an alliance between Warwick and Margaret. Neither of those two formerly mortal enemies entertained the notion at first, but eventually, they were brought round to realise the potential benefits.
However, both were undoubtedly hoping for different outcomes: Warwick for a puppet king in the form of Henry VI or his young son; Margaret to be able to reclaim her family's realm. In any case, a marriage was arranged between Warwick's daughter Anne and Margaret's son Edward of Westminster, and Warwick invaded England in the autumn of Edward IV had already marched north to suppress another uprising in Yorkshire. En poursuivant votre navigation sur ce site, vous acceptez l'utilisation de ces cookies.
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